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Susan M. Rubin, M.D.

Susan M. Rubin, M.D.

Susan M. Rubin, M.D.

Multiple Sclerosis, Women's Neurological Issues, Headache Specialist
  • Locations

    Endeavor Health Medical Group

    2180 Pfingsten Rd.
    Suite 2000
    Glenview, IL 60026
    847.570.2570 847.657.5708 fax
    View Map: Google
    This location is wheelchair accessible.

    Endeavor Health Medical Group

    1000 Central St.
    Suite 880
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.2570 847.657.5708 fax
    View Map: Google
    This location is wheelchair accessible.

    Endeavor Health Medical Group

    920 Milwaukee Ave.
    Suite 2100
    Lincolnshire, IL 60069
    847.570.2570 847.657.5708 fax
    View Map: Google
    This location is wheelchair accessible.
  • Publications
    • Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults and Risk of Dementia.

      JAMA psychiatry 2016 May 01

      Authors: Kaup AR, Byers AL, Falvey C, Simonsick EM, Satterfield S, Ayonayon HN, Smagula SF, Rubin SM, Yaffe K
      Depression has been identified as a risk factor for dementia. However, most studies have measured depressive symptoms at only one time point, and older adults may show different patterns of depressive symptoms over time.
      To investigate the association between trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia in older adults.
      This was a prospective cohort investigation of black and white community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Participants were enrolled between May 1997 and June 1998 and followed up through 2001-2002. The dates of this analysis were September 2014 to December 2015. The setting was community research centers in Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Trajectories of depressive symptoms were assessed from baseline to year 5. Symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form, and trajectories were calculated using latent class growth curve analysis.
      Incident dementia through year 11, determined by dementia medication use, hospital records, or significant cognitive decline (≥1.5 SD race-specific decline on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination). We examined the association between depressive symptom trajectories and dementia incidence using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, health factors that differed between groups, and cognition during the depressive symptom assessment period (baseline to year 5).
      The analytic cohort included 2488 black and white older adults with repeated depressive symptom assessments from baseline to year 5 who were free of dementia throughout that period. Their mean (SD) age at baseline was 74.0 (2.8) years, and 53.1% (n = 1322) were female. The following 3 depressive symptom trajectories were identified: consistently minimal symptoms (62.0% [n = 1542] of participants), moderate and increasing symptoms (32.2% [n = 801] of participants), and high and increasing symptoms (5.8% [n = 145] of participants). Compared with the consistently minimal trajectory, having a high and increasing depressive symptom trajectory was associated with significantly increased risk of dementia (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.30-2.90), while the moderate and increasing trajectory was not associated with risk of dementia after full adjustment. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the high and increasing trajectory was associated with dementia incidence, while depressive symptoms at individual time points were not.
      Older adults with a longitudinal pattern of high and increasing depressive symptoms are at high risk for dementia. Individuals' trajectory of depressive symptoms may inform dementia risk more accurately than one-time assessment of depressive symptoms.
      PMID: 26982217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Association of Hearing Impairment and Emotional Vitality in Older Adults.

      The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences 2016 May

      Authors: Contrera KJ, Betz J, Deal JA, Choi JS, Ayonayon HN, Harris T, Helzner E, Martin KR, Mehta K, Pratt S, Rubin SM, Satterfield S, Yaffe K, Garcia M, Simonsick EM, Lin FR, Health ABC Study
      To better understand the potential impact of hearing impairment (HI) and hearing aid use on emotional vitality and mental health in older adults.
      We investigated the cross-sectional association of HI with emotional vitality in 1,903 adults aged 76-85 years in the Health ABC study adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Hearing was defined by the speech frequency pure tone average (no impairment < 25 dB, mild impairment 25-40 dB, and moderate or greater impairment > 40 dB). Emotional vitality was defined as having a high sense of personal mastery, happiness, low depressive symptomatology, and low anxiety.
      Compared with individuals with no HI, participants with moderate or greater HI had a 23% lower odds of emotional vitality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.99). Hearing aid use was not associated with better emotional vitality (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81-1.20).
      HI is associated with lower odds of emotional vitality in older adults. Further studies are needed to examine the longitudinal impact of HI on mental health and well-being.
      PMID: 26883806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Older adults with limited literacy are at increased risk for likely dementia.

      The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 2014 Jul

      Authors: Kaup AR, Simonsick EM, Harris TB, Satterfield S, Metti AL, Ayonayon HN, Rubin SM, Yaffe K
      Low literacy is common among the elderly and possibly more reflective of educational attainment than years of school completed. We examined the association between literacy and risk of likely dementia in older adults.
      Participants were 2,458 black and white elders (aged 71-82) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, who completed the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and were followed for 8 years. Participants were free of dementia at baseline; incidence of likely dementia was defined by hospital records, prescription for dementia medication, or decline in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between literacy and incidence of likely dementia. Demographics, education, income, comorbidities, lifestyle variables, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status were included in adjusted analyses.
      Twenty-three percent of participants had limited literacy (<9th-grade level). Limited literacy, as opposed to adequate literacy (≥9th-grade level), was associated with greater incidence of likely dementia (25.5% vs17.0%; unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.44-2.13); this association remained significant after adjustment. There was a trend for an interaction between literacy and APOE ε4 status (p = .07); the association between limited literacy and greater incidence of likely dementia was strong among ε4 noncarriers (unadjusted HR = 1.85) but nonsignificant among ε4 carriers (unadjusted HR = 1.25).
      Limited literacy is an important risk factor for likely dementia, especially among APOE ε4-negative older adults, and may prove fruitful to target in interventions aimed at reducing dementia risk.
      PMID: 24158765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults: the Health ABC study.

      Neurology 2009 Jun 09

      Authors: Yaffe K, Fiocco AJ, Lindquist K, Vittinghoff E, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, Satterfield S, Rosano C, Rubin SM, Ayonayon HN, Harris TB, Health ABC Study
      Although several risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, much less is known about factors that predict maintenance of cognitive function in advanced age.
      We studied 2,509 well-functioning black and white elders enrolled in a prospective study. Cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and years 3, 5, and 8. Random effects models were used to classify participants as cognitive maintainers (cognitive change slope > or = 0), minor decliners (slope < 0 and > 1 SD below mean), or major decliners (slope < or = 1 SD below mean). Logistic regression was used to identify domain-specific factors associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner.
      Over 8 years, 30% of the participants maintained cognitive function, 53% showed minor decline, and 16% had major cognitive decline. In the multivariate model, baseline variables significantly associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.77 per 5 years), white race (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.30-2.28), high school education level or greater (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.78-4.26), ninth grade literacy level or greater (OR = 4.85, 95% CI 3.00-7.87), weekly moderate/vigorous exercise (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06-1.62), and not smoking (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.14-2.97). Variables associated with major cognitive decline compared to minor cognitive decline are reported.
      Elders who maintain cognitive function have a unique profile that differentiates them from those with minor decline. Importantly, some of these factors are modifiable and thus may be implemented in prevention programs to promote successful cognitive aging. Further, factors associated with maintenance may differ from factors associated with major cognitive decline, which may impact prevention vs treatment strategies.
      PMID: 19506226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder in migraine.

      Headache 2009 Apr

      Authors: Peterlin BL, Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Rubin SM, Drexler E, Lidicker JR, Meng S
      To evaluate the relative frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in episodic migraine (EM) and chronic daily headache (CDH) sufferers and the impact on headache-related disability.
      Approximately 8% of the population is estimated to have PTSD. Recent studies suggest a higher frequency of PTSD in headache disorders. The association of PTSD and headache-related disability has not been examined.
      A prospective study was conducted at 6 headache centers. PTSD was assessed using the life events checklist and PTSD checklist, civilian version (PCL-C). We compared data from EM to CDH, and migraine with PTSD to migraine without PTSD. The PHQ-9 was used to assess depression, and headache impact test (HIT-6) to assess disability.
      Of 767 participants, 593 fulfilled criteria for EM or CDH and were used in this analysis. The mean age was 42.2 years and 92% were women. The frequency of PTSD was greater in CDH than in EM (30.3% vs 22.4%, P = .043), but not after adjusting for demographics and depression (P = .87). However, participants with major depression and PTSD were more likely to have CDH than EM (24.6% vs 15.79%, P < .002). Disability was greater in migraineurs with PTSD, even after adjustments (65.2 vs 61.7, P = .002).
      The frequency of PTSD in migraineurs, whether episodic or chronic, is higher than the historically reported prevalence of PTSD in the general population. In addition, in the subset of migraineurs with depression, PTSD frequency is greater in CDH sufferers than in episodic migraineurs. Finally, the presence of PTSD is independently associated with greater headache-related disability in migraineurs.
      PMID: 19245387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Sleep problems and associated daytime fatigue in community-dwelling older individuals.

      The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 2008 Oct

      Authors: Goldman SE, Ancoli-Israel S, Boudreau R, Cauley JA, Hall M, Stone KL, Rubin SM, Satterfield S, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
      Reported fatigue has been identified as a component of frailty. The contribution of nighttime sleep quality (duration and complaints) to fatigue symptoms in community-dwelling older adults has not been evaluated.
      We studied 2264 men and women, aged 75-84 years (mean 77.5 years; standard deviation [SD] 2.9), participating in the Year 5 (2001--2002) clinic visit of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Fatigue was determined using a subscale of the Modified Piper Fatigue Scale (0-50; higher score indicating higher fatigue). Hours of sleep per night, trouble falling asleep, waking up during the night, and waking up too early in the morning were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires.
      The average fatigue score was 17.7 (SD 8.4). In multivariate models, women had a 3.8% higher fatigue score than men did. Individuals who slept < or = 6 hours/night had a 4.3% higher fatigue score than did those who slept 7 hours/night. Individuals with complaints of awakening too early in the morning had a 5.5% higher fatigue score than did those without these complaints. These associations remained significant after multivariate adjustment for multiple medical conditions.
      The association between self-reported short sleep duration (< or = 6 hours), and waking up too early and fatigue symptoms suggests that better and more effective management of sleep behaviors may help reduce fatigue in older adults.
      PMID: 18948557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Association between nighttime sleep and napping in older adults.

      Sleep 2008 May

      Authors: Goldman SE, Hall M, Boudreau R, Matthews KA, Cauley JA, Ancoli-Israel S, Stone KL, Rubin SM, Satterfield S, Simonsick EM, Newman AB
      Napping might indicate deficiencies in nighttime sleep, but the relationship is not well defined. We assessed the association of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation with subsequent daytime sleep.
      Cross-sectional study.
      235 individuals (47.5% men, 29.7% black), age 80.1 (2.9) years.
      Nighttime and daytime sleep were measured with wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for an average of 6.8 (SD 0.7) nights. Sleep parameters included total nighttime sleep (h), movement and fragmentation index (fragmentation), and total daytime sleep (h). The relationship of total nighttime sleep and fragmentation to napping (yes/no) was assessed using logistic regression. In individuals who napped, mixed random effects models were used to determine the association between the previous night sleep duration and fragmentation and nap duration, and nap duration and subsequent night sleep duration. All models were adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, cognitive status, depression, cardiovascular disease, respiratory symptoms, diabetes, pain, fatigue, and sleep medication use. Naps were recorded in sleep diaries by 178 (75.7%) participants. The odds ratios (95% CI) for napping were higher for individuals with higher levels of nighttime fragmentation (2.1 [0.8, 5.7]), respiratory symptoms (2.4 [1.1, 5.4]), diabetes (6.1 [1.2, 30.7]), and pain (2.2 [1.0, 4.7]). Among nappers, neither sleep duration nor fragmentation the preceding night was associated with nap duration the next day.
      More sleep fragmentation was associated with higher odds of napping although not with nap duration. Further research is needed to determine the causal association between sleep fragmentation and daytime napping.
      PMID: 18517043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Parkinson's disease in women.

      Disease-a-month : DM 2007 Apr

      Authors: Rubin SM
      PMID: 17586327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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