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Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Breast Surgery
  • Locations

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2650 Ridge Ave.
    Suite 1155
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.733.5298 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2650 Ridge Ave.
    Kellogg Cancer Center
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.733.5298 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.
  • Publications
    • Impact of the Society of Surgical Oncology-American Society for Radiation Oncology Margin Guidelines on Breast-Conserving Surgery and Mastectomy Trends.

      Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2019 Jul

      Authors: Kantor O, Pesce C, Kopkash K, Barrera E, Winchester DJ, Kuchta K, Yao K
      In 2014, the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society for Radiation Oncology guidelines defined negative margin for stage I and II breast cancer as "no tumor on ink." We hypothesized that repeat operation rates have decreased since the guideline introduction and would be associated with changes in overall surgical trends.
      The National Cancer Database was used to identify women who underwent initial breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for stage I and II breast cancer from 2004 to 2015.
      Of 521,578 patients that underwent initial BCS, 82.7% had BCS alone and 17.3% had repeat operation: 67% with BCS followed by another BCS, 24% with BCS followed by unilateral mastectomy, and 9% with BCS followed by bilateral mastectomy (BM). The repeat operation rate decreased from 16.2% in 2004 to 14.0% in 2015 (p < 0.01). Breast-conserving surgery with repeat BCS decreased from 12.8% to 9.7%, and BCS followed by BM increased from 0.7% in 2004 to 1.9% 2013, then decreased to 1.4% in 2015. Trends for all surgical patients regardless of initial procedure showed a BCS rate of 64.0% in 2013 that increased to 67.6% in 2015. The BM rate increased from 4.6% in 2004 to 13.6% in 2013, then decreased to 12.8% in 2015 (p < 0.05). Adjusted multivariable regression found independent predictors of repeat operation to be diagnosis before 2014 (odds ratio [OR] 1.25), age younger than 50 years (OR 1.70), Her2neu receptor-positive tumors (OR 1.61), and lobular histology (OR 1.61).
      Repeat operation rates are decreasing after 2014, which is also associated with a rise in BCS and decrease in BM rates. Dissemination of margin guidelines for early-stage breast cancer might be impacting overall surgical trends.
      PMID: 30902638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • ASO Author Reflections: Breast Center Accreditation and Performance: Impact on Patient Care?

      Annals of surgical oncology 2019 May

      Authors: Yao K

      PMID: 30783856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Impact of Breast Center Accreditation on Compliance with Breast Quality Performance Measures at Commission on Cancer-Accredited Centers.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2019 May

      Authors: Miller ME
      This study was designed to determine whether accreditation by the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers (NAPBC) is associated with improved performance on six breast quality measures pertaining to adjuvant treatment, needle/core biopsy, and breast conservation therapy rates at Commission on Cancer (CoC) centers.
      National Cancer Database 2015 data were retrospectively reviewed to compare patients treated at CoC centers with and without NAPBC accreditation for compliance on six breast cancer quality measures. Mixed effects modeling determined performance on the quality measures adjusting for patient, tumor, and facility factors.
      Of 1308 CoC facilities, 484 (37%) were NAPBC-accredited and 111,547 patients (48%) were treated at NAPBC centers. More than 80% of patients treated at both NAPBC and non-NAPBC centers received care in compliance with breast quality measures. NAPBC centers achieved significantly higher performance on four of the five quality measures than non-NAPBC centers at the patient level and on five of six measures at the facility level. For two measures, needle/core biopsy before surgical treatment of breast cancer and breast conservation therapy rate of 50%, NAPBC centers were twice as likely as non-NAPBC centers to perform at the level expected by the CoC (respectively odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-2.08, p < 0.0001; and OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.94-2.15, p < 0.0001).
      While NAPBC accreditation at CoC centers is associated with higher performance on breast quality measures, the majority of patients at all centers receive guideline-concordant care. Future studies will determine whether higher performance translates into improved oncologic and patient-reported outcomes.
      PMID: 30684159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Treatment delays from transfers of care and their impact on breast cancer quality measures.

      Breast cancer research and treatment 2019 Feb

      Authors: Bleicher RJ
      Despite delays between diagnosis and surgery adversely affecting survival, patients frequently transfer their breast cancer care between institutions. This study was performed to assess the prevalence and effect of such transfers of care (TsOC) on the time to surgery, and its impact on current time-dependent breast cancer quality metrics at Commission on Cancer (CoC) and National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers (NAPBC)-accredited institutions.
      Patients having non-metastatic invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 at CoC and NAPBC centers ("reporting facilities") in the National Cancer Database were reviewed. TsOC refer to transferring into or out of a reporting facility between diagnosis and surgery.
      Among 622,793 patients, 36.6% of patients transferred care. TsOC add 7.3, 7.8, 8.7, and 9.8 days in time to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy, respectively (p's < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, the odds of surgery occurring > 90 days from diagnosis were greatest for patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral mastectomy, Black or Hispanic patients, and those having TsOC (ORs > 1.73, p's < 0.0001). TsOC increase the odds of non-compliance, per patient, for chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine therapy time-dependent measures by 65.4%, 25.6%, and 56.5%, respectively (p < 0.0001).
      TsOC for newly diagnosed breast cancers to or from an accredited facility result in delays in time to surgery which can affect compliance with time-dependent quality measures. Facilities frequently receiving transferred patients may be most adversely affected. Although non-compliance with these quality measures is low, institutions and accrediting bodies should be aware of these associations in order to comply with time-dependent standards.
      PMID: 30443881 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • ASO Author Reflections: Axillary Surgery for Node-Positive Mastectomy Patients.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2018 Dec

      Authors: Gaines S, Yao K

      PMID: 30327969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • ASO Author Reflections: Bilateral Mastectomy After Neoadjuvant Therapy: An Ever-Increasing Trend?

      Annals of surgical oncology 2018 Dec

      Authors: Kantor O, Yao K

      PMID: 30327968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • The effect of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy on breast-related charges: A 5-year analysis.

      Journal of surgical oncology 2018 Jul

      Authors: Smith JR
      The purpose of this study was to determine charges following unilateral mastectomy (UM) and bilateral mastectomy (BM) for patients with unilateral breast cancer (UBC). We hypothesized that BM may be associated with fewer charges over time.
      A retrospective review was conducted of patients with UBC treated between 2006 and 2010 with UM and BM in a large healthcare system. Institutional billing data were investigated for 5 years postoperatively to calculate the immediate and subsequent charges of all inpatient and outpatient breast-related care associated with the initial diagnosis for a subset of patients identified using propensity score matching method.
      A subset of matched patients (n = 320) undergoing UM (n = 160) or BM (n = 160) were included in this analysis. At 1 year, there was a trend toward lower total charges following UM as compared with BM (median, $125 230 vs $138 467; P = .6075). However, during years 2 to 5, total charges were significantly higher following UM vs BM ($22 128 vs $13 478; P = .0116).
      While initially higher, overall charges for BM are lower than UM between 2 and 5 years out from surgery. Further study is necessary to determine if this trend is sustained over the long term. These data can inform patient decision making regarding mastectomy for their breast cancer.
      PMID: 30098307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Facility-level analysis of robot utilization across disciplines in the National Cancer Database.

      Journal of robotic surgery 2019 Apr

      Authors: Fantus RJ, Cohen A, Riedinger CB, Kuchta K, Wang CH, Yao K, Park S
      To evaluate trends in contemporary robotic surgery across multiple organ sites as they relate to robotic prostatectomy volume. We queried the National Cancer Database for patients who underwent surgery from 2010 to 2013 for prostate, kidney, bladder, corpus uteri, uterus, cervix, colon, sigmoid, rectum, lung and bronchus. The trend between volumes of robotic surgery for each organ site was analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Multivariable models were then created to determine independent predictors of robotic surgery within each organ site by calculating the odds ratio with 95% CI. Among the 566,399 surgical cases analyzed, 35.1% were performed using robot assistance. Institutions whose robotic prostatectomy volume was in the top 75 percentile compared to the bottom 25 percentile performed a larger percentage of robotic surgery on the following sites: kidney 32.6 vs. 28.8%, bladder 23.6 vs. 18.6%, uterus 52.5 vs. 47.7%, cervix 43.5 vs. 39.2%, colon 3.2 vs. 2.9%, rectum 10.7 vs. 8.9%, and lung 7.3 vs. 6.8% (all p < 0.0001). It appears that increased trends toward robotic surgery in urology have lead to increased robotic utilization within other surgical fields. Future analysis in benign utilizations of robotic surgery as well as outcome data comparing robotic to open approaches are needed to better understand the ever-evolving nature of minimally invasive surgery within the United States.
      PMID: 30062641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Author's response.

      The breast journal 2018 11

      PMID: 30051547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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