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Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Katharine A. Yao, M.D.

Breast Surgery
  • Locations

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2650 Ridge Ave.
    Suite 1155
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.733.5298 fax
    View Map: Google
    This location is wheelchair accessible.

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2650 Ridge Ave.
    Kellogg Cancer Center
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.733.5298 fax
    View Map: Google
    This location is wheelchair accessible.
  • Publications
    • Rate and timeliness of diagnostic evaluation and biopsy following recall from screening mammography in the National Mammography Database.

      Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR 2023 Sep 16

      Authors: Oluyemi ET, Grimm LJ, Goldman L, Burleson J, Simanowith M, Yao K, Rosenberg RD
      To describe the rate and timeliness of diagnostic resolution following an abnormal screening mammogram in the American College of Radiology's National Mammography Database (NMD).
      Abnormal screening mammograms (BI-RADS 0 assessment) in the NMD from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2021 were retrospectively identified. The rates and timeliness of follow-up with diagnostic evaluation and biopsy were assessed and compared across patient and facility demographics.
      Among the 2,874,310 screening mammograms reported as abnormal, follow up was documented in 66.4% (n=1,909,326). Lower follow up rates were observed in younger women (59.4% <30 years, 63.2% 30-39 years), Black (57.4%) and American Indian (59.5%) women, and women with no breast cancer family history (63.0%). The overall median time to diagnostic evaluation was 9 days. Longer median diagnostic evaluation time was noted in Black (14 days), other/mixed race (14 days), and Hispanic women (13 days). Of the 318,977 recalled screening mammograms recommended for biopsy, 238,556 (74.8%) biopsies were documented. Lower biopsy rates were noted in older women (71.5% aged ≥80), Black (71.5%) and American Indian (52.2%) women. The overall median time from diagnostic evaluation to biopsy was 21 days. Longer median biopsy time was noted in older (23 days aged ≥80), Black (25 days), mixed or other race (26 days), and Hispanic women (23 days), and rural (24 days) or community hospital affiliated facilities (22 days).
      There is variability in the rates and timeliness of diagnostic evaluation and biopsy in women with abnormal screening mammogram. Subsets of women and facilities could benefit from targeted interventions to promote timely diagnostic resolution and biopsy after an abnormal screening mammogram.
      PMID: 37722468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • ASO Visual Abstract: Exploring Breast Surgeons' Attitudes on Universal Genetic Testing: A Qualitative Study.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2023 Jul 26

      Authors: Lapkus M
      PMID: 37493894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Exploring Breast Surgeons' Attitudes on Universal Genetic Testing: A Qualitative Study.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2023 Oct

      Authors: Lapkus M
      The American Society of Breast Surgeons released a consensus statement that genetic testing should be made available to all patients with a personal history of breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether physicians feel comfortable with universal genetic testing (UGT) or if they have sufficient knowledge to interpret results and manage them appropriately.
      The purpose of this study was to explore breast surgeons' attitudes toward UGT.
      Breast surgeons were consented and scheduled for a semi-structured virtual interview. Transcripts were uploaded into qualitative analysis software where they were exhaustively and iteratively coded. Codes were then organized into higher-order categories and themes and data saturation were assessed.
      Thirty-one surgeons completed the qualitative interview. Most surgeons practiced in the academic or community setting and most practiced in the Midwest (71.0%). The majority (90.3%) reported having a structured genetics program. The majority (96.8%) referred their patients to genetics for counseling and most preferred ordering testing through a genetic services provider. Some surgeons had concerns about access to genetic services. A minority of surgeons order UGT for all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The majority of respondents thought that more training in genetics was needed for surgeons. Many surgeons expressed concern about the psychosocial effects of UGT on patients.
      Many surgeons expressed concerns about UGT, mainly related to discomfort with their training, access to genetic services, and the psychosocial impact on their patients. Future work is needed to determine how to improve surgeon's comfort level in implementing UGT.
      PMID: 37439952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Trends in bilateral mastectomy rates among different racial backgrounds: A National Cancer Database study.

      American journal of surgery 2023 Oct

      Authors: Nicholson K, Kuchta K, Fefferman M, Pesce C, Kopkash K, Poli E, Yao K
      Studies have shown a decrease in bilateral mastectomy (BM) rates over the past five to ten years, but it is not clear if these decreases are the same across different patient races.
      Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) we examined BM rates for patients with AJCC Stage 0-II unilateral breast cancer from 2004 to 2020 for White versus nonwhite races (Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify patient and facility factors associated with BM by patient race from 2004 to 2006 and 2018-2020.
      Of 1,187,864 patients, 791,594 (66.6%) had breast conserving surgery (BCS), 258,588 (21.8%) had unilateral mastectomy (UM) and 137,682 (11.6%) had BM. Our patient population was 927,530 (78.1%) White patients, 124,636 (10.5%) Black patients, 68,048 (5.7%) Hispanic patients, and 48,341 (4.1%) Asian patients. The BM rate steadily increased from 5.6% to 15.6% from 2004 to 2013, at which point the BM rate decreased to 11.3% in 2020. The decrease in BM was seen across all races, and in 2020, 6,487 (11.7%) Whites underwent BM compared to 506 (10.7%) Hispanics, 331 (9.2%) Asians, and 723 (9.1%) Blacks. Race was a significant independent factor for BM in 2004-2006 and 2018-2020 but all races were more likely to undergo BM in 2004 compared to 2020 after adjusting for patient and facility factors. Compared to Whites, the odds of undergoing BM were OR 0.41 (0.37-0.45) in 2004 compared to OR 0.66 (0.63-0.69) in 2020 for Blacks, OR 0.44 (0.38-0.52) and OR 0.61 (0.57-0.65) for Asians and OR 0.59 (0.52-0.66) and OR 0.71 (0.67-0.75) for Hispanics, respectively.
      BM rates for all races have declined since 2013, and differences in rates of BM amongst races have narrowed.
      PMID: 37429752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Rates of Bilateral Mastectomy in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

      JAMA network open 2023 Jan 03

      Authors: Fefferman M, Nicholson K, Kuchta K, Pesce C, Kopkash K, Yao K
      PMID: 36652251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Impact of Surgical Delays During the Initial Surge of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients with Breast Disease.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2023 Feb

      Authors: Nicholson K, Kuchta K, Pesce C
      PMID: 36484903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Evaluation of a National Quality Improvement Collaborative for Improving Cancer Screening.

      JAMA network open 2022 Nov 01

      Authors: Joung RH, Mullett TW
      Cancer screening deficits during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were found to persist into 2021. Cancer-related deaths over the next decade are projected to increase if these deficits are not addressed.
      To assess whether participation in a nationwide quality improvement (QI) collaborative, Return-to-Screening, was associated with restoration of cancer screening.
      Accredited cancer programs electively enrolled in this QI study. Project-specific targets were established on the basis of differences in mean monthly screening test volumes (MTVs) between representative prepandemic (September 2019 and January 2020) and pandemic (September 2020 and January 2021) periods to restore prepandemic volumes and achieve a minimum of 10% increase in MTV. Local QI teams implemented evidence-based screening interventions from June to November 2021 (intervention period), iteratively adjusting interventions according to their MTVs and target. Interrupted time series analyses was used to identify the intervention effect. Data analysis was performed from January to April 2022.
      Collaborative QI support included provision of a Return-to-Screening plan-do-study-act protocol, evidence-based screening interventions, QI education, programmatic coordination, and calculation of screening deficits and targets.
      The primary outcome was the proportion of QI projects reaching target MTV and counterfactual differences in the aggregate number of screening tests across time periods.
      Of 859 cancer screening QI projects (452 for breast cancer, 134 for colorectal cancer, 244 for lung cancer, and 29 for cervical cancer) conducted by 786 accredited cancer programs, 676 projects (79%) reached their target MTV. There were no hospital characteristics associated with increased likelihood of reaching target MTV except for disease site (lung vs breast, odds ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.7). During the preintervention period (April to May 2021), there was a decrease in the mean MTV (slope, -13.1 tests per month; 95% CI, -23.1 to -3.2 tests per month). Interventions were associated with a significant immediate (slope, 101.0 tests per month; 95% CI, 49.1 to 153.0 tests per month) and sustained (slope, 36.3 tests per month; 95% CI, 5.3 to 67.3 tests per month) increase in MTVs relative to the preintervention trends. Additional screening tests were performed during the intervention period compared with the prepandemic period (170 748 tests), the pandemic period (210 450 tests), and the preintervention period (722 427 tests).
      In this QI study, participation in a national Return-to-Screening collaborative with a multifaceted QI intervention was associated with improvements in cancer screening. Future collaborative QI endeavors leveraging accreditation infrastructure may help address other gaps in cancer care.
      PMID: 36383381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Impact of Surgical Delay on Tumor Upstaging and Outcomes in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Patients.

      Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2022 Nov 01

      Authors: Deliere AE, Kuchta KM, Pesce CE, Kopkash KA, Yao KA
      The delay of elective surgeries by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted concern among surgeons to delay estrogen receptor (ER)-negative ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) for fear of missing an ER-negative invasive cancer and compromising survival of patients.
      Female patients ≥40 years old diagnosed with ER-negative DCIS from 2004 to 2017 were examined from the National Cancer Database. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for patient and tumor factors, was used to determine factors associated with tumor upstage. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine if surgical delay impacted overall survival of ER-negative DCIS patients that were upstaged to invasive disease.
      There were 219,731 patients with DCIS of which 24,338 (11.1%) had tumor upstage. Of these patients, 5,675 (16.2%) of ER-negative and 18,663 (10.1%) of ER-positive DCIS patients were upstaged (p ≤ 0.001). From 2004 to 2017, ER-negative DCIS upstage rates increased from 12.9% to 18.9%. Independent factors associated with tumor upstage were younger age (odds ratio [OR] 0.75 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.81]) and Black race (OR 1.34 [95% CI 1.22 to 1.46]). Compared with patients with ≤30 days between biopsy and surgery, patients with a 31- to 60-day interval (OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.05 to 1.20]) and a >60-day interval (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.23]) had an increased rate of tumor upstage. Among ER-negative DCIS patients whose tumors were upstaged to invasive disease, Cox proportional hazard regression modeling showed no association between the number of days between biopsy and surgery and overall survival.
      Delays in surgery were associated with higher tumor upstage rates but not with worse overall survival.
      PMID: 36102573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • ASO Visual Abstract: Male Breast Cancer Patients and Surgeon Experience: The Male WhySurg Study.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2022 Oct

      Authors: Chichura A
      PMID: 36001182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Male Breast Cancer Patient and Surgeon Experience: The Male WhySurg Study.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2022 Oct

      Authors: Chichura A
      Little is known about the experience of the male breast cancer patient. Mastectomy is often offered despite evidence that breast-conserving surgery (BCS) provides similar outcomes.
      Two concurrent online surveys were distributed from August to October 2020 via social media to male breast cancer (MBC) patients and by email to American Society of Breast Surgeon members. The MBC patients were asked their opinions about their surgery, and the surgeons were asked to provide surgical recommendations for MBC patients.
      The survey involved 63 MBC patients with a mean age of 62 years (range, 31-79 years). Five MBC patients (7.9 %) stated that their surgeon recommended BCS, but 54 (85.7 %) of the patients underwent unilateral, and 8 (12.7 %) underwent bilateral mastectomy. Most of the patients (n = 60, 96.8 %) had no reconstruction. One third of the patients (n = 21, 33.3 %) felt somewhat or very uncomfortable with their appearance after surgery. The response rate was 16.5 % for the surgeons. Of the 438 surgeons who answered the survey, 298 (73.3 %) were female, 215 (51.7 %) were fellowship-trained, and 244 (58.9 %) had been practicing for 16 years or longer. More than half of surgeons (n = 259, 59.1 %) routinely offered BCS to eligible men, and 180 (41.3 %) stated they had performed BCS on a man with breast cancer. Whereas 89 (20.8 %) of the surgeons stated that they routinely offer reconstruction to MBC patients, 87 (20.3 %) said they do not offer reconstruction, 96 (22.4 %) said they offer it only if the patient requests it, and 157 (36.6 %) said they never consider it as an option.
      The study found discordance between MBC patients' satisfaction with their surgery and surgeon recommendations and experience. These data present an opportunity to optimize the MBC patient experience.
      PMID: 35876929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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