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Richard A. Prinz, M.D.

Richard A. Prinz, M.D.

Richard A. Prinz, M.D.

  • Locations
    Locations
    A

    NorthShore Medical Group

    1000 Central St.
    Suite 800
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.733.5296 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.
    B

    NorthShore Medical Group

    757 Park Ave. West
    Suite 2850
    Highland Park, IL 60035
    847.570.1700 847.733.5296 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.
    C

    NorthShore Medical Group

    1329 N. Wolf Rd.
    Mount Prospect, IL 60056
    847.570.1700 847.733.5296 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.
  • Publications
    Publications
    • H1N1 Influenza Virus Cross-Activates Gli1 to Disrupt the Intercellular Junctions of Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

      Cell reports 2020 Jun 30

      Authors: Ruan T, Sun J, Liu W, Prinz RA, Peng D, Liu X, Xu X
      Abstract
      Influenza A virus (IAV) primarily infects the airway and alveolar epithelial cells and disrupts the intercellular junctions, leading to increased paracellular permeability. Although this pathological change plays a critical role in lung tissue injury and secondary infection, the molecular mechanism of IAV-induced damage to the alveolar barrier remains obscure. Here, we report that Gli1, a transcription factor in the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, is cross-activated by the MAP and PI3 kinase pathways in H1N1 virus (PR8)-infected A549 cells and in the lungs of H1N1 virus-infected mice. Gli1 activation induces Snail expression, which downregulates the expression of intercellular junction proteins, including E-cadherin, ZO-1, and Occludin, and increases paracellular permeability. Inhibition of the Shh pathway restores the levels of Snail and intercellular junction proteins in H1N1-infected cells. Our study suggests that Gli1 activation plays an important role in disrupting the intercellular junctions and in promoting the pathogenesis of H1N1 virus infections.
      PMID: 32610119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • A77 1726, the active metabolite of the anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug leflunomide, inhibits influenza A virus replication in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the activity of Janus kinases.

      FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2020 Jun 29

      Authors: Wang J, Sun J
      Abstract
      The newly reassorted IAV subtypes from zoonotic reservoirs respond poorly to current vaccines and antiviral therapy. There is an unmet need in developing novel antiviral drugs for better control of IAV infection. The cellular factors that are crucial for virus replication have been sought as novel molecular targets for antiviral therapy. Recent studies have shown that Janus kinases (JAK), JAK1, and JAK2, play an important role in IAV replication. Leflunomide is an anti-inflammatory drug primarily used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prior studies suggest that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, inhibits the activity of JAK1 and JAK3. Our current study aims to determine if A77 1726 can function as a JAK inhibitor to control IAV infection. Here, we report that A77 1726 inhibited the replication of three IAV subtypes(H5N1, H1N1, H9N2)in three cell types (chicken embryonic fibroblasts, A549, and MDCK). A77 1726 inhibited JAK1, JAK2, and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. Similar observations were made with Ruxolitinib (Rux), a JAK-specific inhibitor. JAK2 overexpression enhanced H5N1 virus replication and compromised the antiviral activity of A77 1726. Leflunomide inhibited virus replication in the lungs of IAV-infected mice, alleviated their body weight loss, and prolonged their survival. Our study demonstrates for the first time the ability of A77 1726 to inhibit JAK2 activity and suggests that inhibition of JAK activity contributes to its antiviral activity.
      PMID: 32598086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • The Gli1-Snail axis contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium-induced disruption of intercellular junctions of intestinal epithelial cells.

      Cellular microbiology 2020 Apr 23

      Authors: Liu W, Ruan T, Ji X, Ran D, Sun J
      Abstract
      Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that damages gastrointestinal tissue and causes severe diarrhoea. The mechanisms by which Salmonella disrupts epithelial barrier and increases the paracellular permeability are incompletely understood. Our present study aims to determine the role of Gli1, a transcription factor activated in the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, in decreasing the levels of apical junction proteins in a Salmonella-infected human colonic epithelial cancer cell line, Caco-2, and in the intestinal tissue of Salmonella-infected mice. Here, we report that S. Typhimurium increased the mRNA and protein levels of Gli1 and Snail, a downstream transcription factor that plays an important role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). S. Typhimurium also decreased the levels of E-cadherin and three tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin). Gli1 siRNA and GANT61, a Gli1-specific inhibitor, blocked S. Typhimurium-induced Snail expression, restored the levels of E-cadherin and tight junction proteins, and prevented S. Typhimurium-increased paracellular permeability. Further study showed that Gli1 was cross-activated by the MAP and PI-3 kinase pathways. S. Typhimurium devoid of sopB, an effector of the Type 3 secretion system (T3SS) responsible for AKT activation, was unable to induce Snail expression and to decrease the expression of apical junction proteins. Our study uncovered a novel role of Gli1 in mediating the Salmonella-induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier.
      PMID: 32329192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Trends in nonoperative management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

      Journal of surgical oncology 2020 May

      Authors: Holoubek SA, Yan H, Kuchta KM, Winchester DJ
      Abstract
      In 2010, a Japanese trial of nonoperative management for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTmC) was published. This study determines if the prevalence of nonoperative management in the United States has changed and if there are predictors of this approach.
      Patients treated for PTmC between 2004 and 2015 in the National Cancer Data Base were identified. Inclusion criteria were: classic or follicular variant papillary cancer histology, tumor size 1 to 10 mm, cN0 disease and no extrathyroidal extension or metastatic disease. Nonoperative management was assessed over time and compared between 2004-2010 and 2010-2015. Logistic regression identified factors associated with nonoperative management.
      Of 65 381 PTmC patients, 344 (0.5%) were treated nonoperatively. The annual rate of nonoperative management was similar at 0.6% in 2004 to 0.4% in 2010 (P = .755) but increased to 0.9% in 2015 (P < .001). There was no difference in patient age, race, comorbidities, or reason for nonoperative management between the two periods. Academic centers managed more patients nonoperatively. Multivariable logistic regression suggests older age, facility type, location, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American ethnicity were associated with nonoperative management.
      The vast majority of PTmC in the United States is treated with an operation. A small but significant increase in nonoperative management occurred between 2004-2010 and 2010-2015.
      PMID: 32189361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Survival with Follicular and Hurthle Cell Microcarcinoma Compared to Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Population Study of 84,532 Patients.

      World journal of surgery 2020 Feb

      Authors: Khokar AM
      Abstract
      This study compares survival in patients with the rare subtypes of follicular (FTmC) and Hurthle cell (HCmC) microcarcinoma compared to that of papillary thyroid (PTmC) microcarcinoma.
      Patients with FTmC and HCmC were selected from the National Cancer Database 2004-2015 and compared with PTmC. Patient clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analysis evaluated binary outcomes and predictors of survival. A propensity score matched analysis using age, gender, race, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), nodal status, distant metastasis, radiation, and operation was performed to evaluate the difference in OS with FTmC, HCmC, and PTmC.
      We identified 858 FTmC, 476 HCmC, and 82,056 PTmC. FTmC was less likely to have macroscopic ETE compared to PTmC (2.6% vs. 3.1% p = 0.03), but more likely to have distant metastasis (2.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.01). FTmC and HCmC were less likely to have nodal metastasis (2.7%, 2.5% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.01). Ten-year OS was decreased in patients with FTmC (91.4%, p = 0.04) and HCmC (89.8%, p < 0.01) compared to PTmC (93.5%). On multivariable analysis, histology was not associated with OS. With HCmC, older age (OR 1.13, p < 0.01) and male gender (OR 2.72, p = 0.03) were associated with decreased OS. In propensity matched analysis, there was no difference in 10-year OS with FTmC and PTmC (91.4% vs. 93.7%, p = 0.54), but HCmC had decreased OS compared to PTmC (89.8% vs. 94.3%, p = 0.04).
      Patients with FTmC have comparable OS to those with PTmC, but HCmC has decreased OS especially in older and male patients.
      PMID: 31863140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Parathyroidectomy is Safe in Elderly Patients: A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Study.

      World journal of surgery 2020 Feb

      Authors: Khokar AM
      Abstract
      With increasing age, the incidence of hyperparathyroidism is increased. This study evaluates parathyroidectomy outcomes in elderly patients.
      Primary hyperparathyroidism patients having parathyroidectomy as listed in the 2005-2017 ACS-NSQIP database were separated by age: ≤60, 61-79 and ≥80. Outcomes included complications, 30-day mortality, return to the OR, operating times, and hospital length of stay (LOS). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare patients 61-79 and ≥80 to those ≤60. Patients ≤60 and ≥80 were propensity score matched using gender, race, BMI, smoking status, steroid use, modified frailty index (mFI), ASA class, procedure, setting, anesthesia, and wound class. Morbidity and mortality were compared to ACS-NSQIP database patients having elective inguinal hernia repair.
      Of 47,701 patients: 22,220 were ≤60, 22,683 were 61-79, and 2798 were ≥80. Patients ≥80 had more complications (2.3% vs. 1.5% for 61-79 and 1.0% for ≤60, p < 0.01), LOS > 1 day (10.3% vs. 5.8% and 6.7%, p < 0.01), and mortality (0.21% vs. 0.11% and 0.03%, p < 0.01). On multivariable analysis of the overall population, older age, male gender, steroid use, high mFI, outpatient procedure, and general anesthesia increased the risk of complications. On propensity score matched analysis, there was no difference in complications (1.5% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.06) or mortality (0.04% vs. 0.23%, p = 0.12) between patients ≤60 and ≥80. Parathyroidectomy morbidity and mortality was lower than that for elective inguinal hernia repair in patients ≥80 (2.3% vs. 10% and 0.21% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.01).
      Parathyroidectomy is a safe operation, offering lower morbidity and mortality than elective hernia repair in all age groups including octogenarians.
      PMID: 31722077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Thyroid Lobectomy for T1b-T2 Papillary Thyroid Cancer with High-Risk Features.

      Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2020 Jan

      Authors: Suman P, Razdan SN, Wang CE, Tulchinsky M, Ahmed L, Prinz RA, Winchester DJ
      Abstract
      Thyroid lobectomy (TL) has been proposed as definitive surgical treatment for papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) up to 4 cm. This study evaluates the use and appropriateness of TL for T1b and T2 PTC.
      The National Cancer Database was interrogated for adult patients having TL for T1b-T2 PTC between 2004 and 2014. Patients who should have undergone total thyroidectomy (TT) instead of lobectomy based on high-risk tumor features were identified. The 2 groups were compared for clinical and demographic characteristics, and overall survival.
      Of 8,083 patients undergoing lobectomy, 1,552 patients had high-risk features and should have undergone TT. These included 194 with cN1, 571 with pN1, 307 with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), 645 with extra thyroidal extension (ETE), 567 with positive margins, 42 with poorly differentiated PTC, and 25 with M1 disease. At 10 years of follow-up, 92.4% of appropriate lobectomy (aTL) patients were alive compared with 88.5% of inappropriate lobectomy (iTL) patients (p < 0.001). On univariate and multivariable Cox survival analysis, age greater than 45 years, male sex, comorbidities, government or no insurance, low income, and tumor size >2 cm were associated with poorer survival (all p < 0.05). Thyroid lobectomy patients with high-risk features had significantly higher mortality on unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.59, p < 0.001) and adjusted survival analysis (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.58, p < 0.001). Total thyroidectomy with radioiodine treatment had improved overall survival in comparison to iTL (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83, p < 0.001).
      A substantial number of patients (19.2%) with tumor size >1 cm and high-risk features undergo thyroid lobectomy for PTC. Exclusion of high-risk features is important when adopting lobectomy as the definitive surgical therapy for T1b and T2 PTC because they have a potential adverse effect on long-term survival.
      PMID: 31672668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Increasing trend of bilateral neck exploration in primary hyperparathyroidism.

      American journal of surgery 2020 03

      Authors: Khokar AM, Kuchta KM, Moo-Young TA, Winchester DJ, Prinz RA
      Abstract
      Bilateral neck exploration was the standard operation for primary hyperparathyroidism. With improvements in preoperative localization and use of intraoperative PTH (ioPTH) monitoring, minimally invasive unilateral neck exploration has been widely adopted. This study evaluates the trend in parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism.
      Parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism was analyzed from 2010 to 2017. Exclusion criteria included previous neck surgery and concomitant procedures. The operations were classified as unilateral exploration (UE), UE converted to bilateral exploration (BE), or BE. Variables included preoperative and intraoperative factors. Outcomes included persistence, recurrence, permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury.
      Four hundred thirty-one patients were reviewed. Since 2010, the rate of BE has increased from 30% to 50%. Disease duration, presence of bone disease, negative localization, baseline ioPTH <100, and ≥2 abnormal glands have increased. Mean operative time has not changed over time. Two percent of patients had persistent disease, <1% had recurrent disease, and 2% have had reoperation. Nine percent had temporary hypoparathyroidism, and 15 patients had temporary RLN injury.
      This study shows an increasing trend in BE for primary hyperparathyroidism. This increase was associated with lower baseline intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) levels and smaller gland size. The operative approach for parathyroidectomy should be individualized and surgeons should not hesitate to perform BE when needed.
      PMID: 31630823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Aggressive variants of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma are associated with high-risk features, but not decreased survival.

      Surgery 2020 01

      Authors: Holoubek SA, Yan H, Khokar AH, Kuchta KM, Winchester DJ, Prinz RA, Moo-Young TA
      Abstract
      This study compares pathologic features and overall survival of classic versus aggressive variants of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PMTC).
      Patients ≥18 years in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2015) with the subtypes of classic (cPTMC), tall cell (mTCV), or diffuse sclerosing (mDSV) PTC (≤1 cm) were identified. Overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and propensity matched for clinicopathologic and treatment variables.
      There were 82,056 cPTMC patients, 923 mTCV, and 219 mDSV. Extrathyroidal extension and nodal involvement were more frequent in mTCV and mDSV versus cPTMC (P < .01). mTCV had more distant metastases than cPTMC (P = .02). On multivariable analysis, mTCV (odds ratio 4.19 [3.58-4.92], P < .001) and mDSV (odds ratio 2.76 [1.92-3.97]; P < .01) histologies were predictors of extrathyroidal extension. mTCV was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (odds ratio 1.51 [1.25-1.83], P < .01). Total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment were more commonly used in mTCV and mDSV patients when compared with cPTMC patients. Despite more aggressive features and more aggressive treatment in mTCV and mDSV patients, there was no difference in overall survival when compared with propensity-matched cPTMC patients.
      Although mTCV and mDSV have more aggressive pathologic features and were treated more aggressively, there were no differences in overall survival compared with propensity-matched cPTMC patients.
      PMID: 31627846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Role of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation in H5N1 influenza A virus-induced c-Jun terminal kinase activation and virus replication.

      Virology 2019 11

      Authors: Sheng T, Sun Y, Sun J, Prinz RA, Peng D, Liu X, Xu X
      Abstract
      Activation of c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) by the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus (IAV) plays an important role in inducing autophagy and virus replication. However, the mechanisms of NS1-induced JNK activation remain elusive. Here we first confirmed the ability of H5N1 (A/mallard/Huadong/S/2005) to activate JNK and to induce autophagy in 293T cells, a human embryonic kidney cell line. We further showed that TAK1, MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), and JNK were activated in 293T cells transfected with the NS1 gene of the H5N1 virus. JNK activation by the NS1 protein or by H5N1 virus was blocked by 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (5Z), a TAK1-specific inhibitor, and by TAK1 siRNA. Further study showed that 5Z and TAK1 siRNA suppressed H5N1 virus-induced autophagy and inhibited virus replication. Our study unveiled a previously unrecognized role of TAK1 in IAV replication, IAV-induced JNK activation, and autophagy.
      PMID: 31539775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]