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David J. Winchester, M.D.

David J. Winchester, M.D.

David J. Winchester, M.D.

General Surgery, Surgical Oncology
  • Locations

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2650 Ridge Ave.
    Suite 1155
    Evanston, IL 60201
    847.570.1700 847.503.4353 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2050 Pfingsten Rd.
    Suite 128
    Glenview, IL 60026
    847.570.1700 847.503.4353 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.

    NorthShore Medical Group

    2050 Pfingsten Rd.
    Suite 130
    Glenview, IL 60026
    847.570.1700 847.503.4353 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.

    NorthShore Medical Group

    9650 Gross Point Rd.
    Suite 3900
    Skokie, IL 60076
    847.570.1700 847.503.4353 fax Get Directions This location is wheelchair accessible.
  • Publications
    • Overall survival is improved with total thyroidectomy and radiation for male patients and patients older than 55 with T2N0M0 Stage 1 classic papillary thyroid cancer.

      Surgery 2021 Oct 16

      Authors: Mackinney EC, Kuchta KM, Winchester DJ, Khokar AM, Holoubek SA, Moo-Young TA, Prinz RA
      We examine whether surgery extent and radiation administration affect overall survival for cT2N0M0 classic papillary thyroid cancer according to age and sex.
      Patients with cT2N0M0 classic papillary thyroid cancer tumors in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2016) were selected. Multivariable Cox regression analysis compared patients (combined male + female cohorts) having lobectomy to those having total thyroidectomy with or without radiation (primarily radioactive iodine) for ages: 18 to 45, 46 to 55, and >55 years. In addition, 1:1 propensity score matching and Kaplan-Meier curves with 10-year overall survival estimates, and log-rank test were stratified by age and sex.
      Lobectomy had equivalent overall survival to total thyroidectomy without and with radiation for patients (combined male + female cohorts) aged 18 to 45 and 46 to 55 years on multivariable analysis. On propensity score matching there was overall survival advantage for total thyroidectomy with radiation over both lobectomy and total thyroidectomy for men (ages 18-90+ combined) and overall survival advantage in patients (combined male + female cohort) aged >55 years having total thyroidectomy with radiation versus lobectomy. On propensity score matching there were no overall survival differences in women (ages 18-90+ combined) or patients (combined male + female cohort) aged 18 to 45 and 46 to 55 years having either lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, or total thyroidectomy with radiation.
      For cT2N0M0 classic papillary thyroid cancer, total thyroidectomy with radiation improves 10-year overall survival for patients (combined male + female cohort) aged >55 years and men (ages 18-90+ combined).
      PMID: 34666913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Radioactive iodine does not improve overall survival for patients with aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma less than 2 cm.

      Surgery 2021 Aug 10

      Authors: Holoubek SA, MacKinney EC, Khokar AM, Kuchta KM, Winchester DJ, Prinz RA, Moo-Young TA
      Tall cell and diffuse sclerosing variants of papillary thyroid cancer are associated with aggressive features. Radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy is poorly studied.
      Patients ≥18 years in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2016 with classic papillary thyroid cancer, tall cell, or diffuse sclerosing 1 mm to 40 mm were identified. Logistic regression identified factors associated with aggressive features. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests, after propensity score matching for clinicopathological and treatment variables.
      A total of 155,940 classic papillary thyroid cancer patients, 4,011 tall cell, and 507 diffuse sclerosing were identified. Tall cell patients represented an increasing proportion of the study population during the analysis period, whereas diffuse sclerosing and classic papillary thyroid cancer patients showed a statistically significant decline. Extrathyroidal extension and nodal involvement were more prevalent among tall cell and diffuse sclerosing patients when compared to those diagnosed with classic papillary thyroid cancer (P < .01). Adjuvant radioactive iodine was less frequently used in patients with classic papillary thyroid cancer when compared to tall cell and diffuse sclerosing patients (42.6% vs 62.4%, 59.0%; P < .001, respectively). Aggressive variants receiving total thyroidectomy versus total thyroidectomy + radioactive iodine propensity score matched across clinicopathologic variables were analyzed. There was no difference in overall survival between the 2 treatment groups for tumors <2 cm (01-1.0 cm, 92.2% vs 84.8%; P = .98); (1.0-2.0 cm, 72.7% vs 88.1%; P = .82). However, overall survival was improved for total thyroidectomy + radioactive iodine propensity score matched patients with tumor sizes 21 to 40 mm versus total thyroidectomy (83.4% vs 70.0%, P = .004).
      For aggressive tumor variants ≤2 cm treated with total thyroidectomy, there is no overall survival advantage provided by the addition of adjuvant radioactive iodine.
      PMID: 34384604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Radioactive iodine-125 seed localization as an aid in reoperative neck surgery.

      American journal of surgery 2021 03

      Authors: Bortz MD, Khokar A, Winchester DJ, Moo-Young TA, Ecanow DB, Ecanow JS, Prinz RA
      Scarring and disrupted tissue planes add to already-complex neck anatomy and make localization of nonpalpable pathology difficult in cervical endocrine reoperations. We describe the use of radioactive iodine-125 seed localization (RSL) in 6 patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 2 with recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
      Eight patients had 2-D ultrasound-guided RSL of the target lesion, 0-3 days preoperatively. Intraoperative gamma probe (Neoprobe) was used to plan incision placement and localize the implanted seed. Recorded operative variables included: number of lymph nodes (LNs) harvested, estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time, length of stay (LOS) and RSL and operative complications.
      All patients had successful resection of the targeted area and removal of the radioactive seed. There was no seed migration. Two complications occurred in the thyroid group.
      Radioactive iodine 125 seeds facilitate successful localization of endocrine pathology during reoperative cervical procedures.
      PMID: 33546853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Extrathyroidal extension predicts negative clinical outcomes in papillary thyroid cancer.

      Surgery 2021 Jan

      Authors: Bortz MD, Kuchta K, Winchester DJ, Prinz RA, Moo-Young TA
      The eighth edition American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis staging for well-differentiated thyroid cancers, no longer considers "minimal" extrathyroidal extension for tumor staging. This change prompted us to examine the effect of extrathyroidal extension on patient outcomes.
      Patients (n = 177,497) in the 2016 National Cancer Database with classic papillary thyroid cancer were evaluated to determine the effect of extrathyroidal extension on overall survival and risk for nodal and distant metastases. Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test were used to evaluate survival differences. Multivariable Cox and logistic regression analyses included relevant clinicopathologic variables (e.g. age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index).
      Patients with "minimal" extrathyroidal extension had worse survival versus patients with no extrathyroidal extension (10-year survival 89.3% vs 93.1%, hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.35; P < .001). Any extrathyroidal extension was associated with higher risks for lymph node (odds ratio 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.69-2.87) and distant metastasis (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.05-4.04). These associations persisted when comparing "micro" (extension into the thyroid capsule) versus none for nodal risk (odds ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.33) and distant metastasis (OR 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.09).
      All levels of extrathyroidal extension, including microscopic, were associated with increased risk for nodal and distant metastasis. Both minimal and macroscopic extrathyroidal extension were also associated with decreased overall survival. Such findings have the potential to affect the clinical decision making for patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer.
      PMID: 32682508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Virtual Surgical Fellowship Recruitment During COVID-19 and Its Implications for Resident/Fellow Recruitment in the Future.

      Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Dec

      Authors: Vining CC, Eng OS, Hogg ME, Schuitevoerder D, Silverman RS, Yao KA, Winchester DJ, Roggin KK, Talamonti MS, Posner MC, Turaga KK, Tseng J
      The COVID-19 pandemic has overlapped with the scheduled interview periods of over 20 surgical subspecialty fellowships, including the Complex General Surgical Oncology (CGSO) fellowships in the National Resident Matching Program and the Society of Surgical Oncology's Breast Surgical Oncology fellowships. We outline the successful implementation of and processes behind a virtual interview day for CGSO fellowship recruitment after the start of the pandemic.
      The virtual CGSO fellowship interview process at the University of Chicago Medicine and NorthShore University Health System was outlined and implemented. Separate voluntary, anonymous online secure feedback surveys were email distributed to interview applicants and faculty interviewers after the interview day concluded.
      Sixteen of 20 interview applicants (80.0%) and 12 of 13 faculty interviewers (92.3%) completed their respective feedback surveys. Seventy-five percent (12/16) of applicants and all faculty respondents (12/12) stated the interview process was 'very seamless' or 'seamless'. Applicants and faculty highlighted decreased cost, time savings, and increased efficiency as some of the benefits to virtual interviewing.
      Current circumstances related to the COVID-19 pandemic require fellowship programs to adapt and conduct virtual interviews. Our report describes the successful implementation of a virtual interview process. This report describes the technical steps and pitfalls of organizing such an interview and provides insights into the experience of the interviewer and interviewee.
      PMID: 32424589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Trends in nonoperative management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

      Journal of surgical oncology 2020 May

      Authors: Holoubek SA, Yan H, Kuchta KM, Winchester DJ
      In 2010, a Japanese trial of nonoperative management for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTmC) was published. This study determines if the prevalence of nonoperative management in the United States has changed and if there are predictors of this approach.
      Patients treated for PTmC between 2004 and 2015 in the National Cancer Data Base were identified. Inclusion criteria were: classic or follicular variant papillary cancer histology, tumor size 1 to 10 mm, cN0 disease and no extrathyroidal extension or metastatic disease. Nonoperative management was assessed over time and compared between 2004-2010 and 2010-2015. Logistic regression identified factors associated with nonoperative management.
      Of 65 381 PTmC patients, 344 (0.5%) were treated nonoperatively. The annual rate of nonoperative management was similar at 0.6% in 2004 to 0.4% in 2010 (P = .755) but increased to 0.9% in 2015 (P < .001). There was no difference in patient age, race, comorbidities, or reason for nonoperative management between the two periods. Academic centers managed more patients nonoperatively. Multivariable logistic regression suggests older age, facility type, location, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American ethnicity were associated with nonoperative management.
      The vast majority of PTmC in the United States is treated with an operation. A small but significant increase in nonoperative management occurred between 2004-2010 and 2010-2015.
      PMID: 32189361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Survival with Follicular and Hurthle Cell Microcarcinoma Compared to Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Population Study of 84,532 Patients.

      World journal of surgery 2020 02

      Authors: Khokar AM
      This study compares survival in patients with the rare subtypes of follicular (FTmC) and Hurthle cell (HCmC) microcarcinoma compared to that of papillary thyroid (PTmC) microcarcinoma.
      Patients with FTmC and HCmC were selected from the National Cancer Database 2004-2015 and compared with PTmC. Patient clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analysis evaluated binary outcomes and predictors of survival. A propensity score matched analysis using age, gender, race, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), nodal status, distant metastasis, radiation, and operation was performed to evaluate the difference in OS with FTmC, HCmC, and PTmC.
      We identified 858 FTmC, 476 HCmC, and 82,056 PTmC. FTmC was less likely to have macroscopic ETE compared to PTmC (2.6% vs. 3.1% p = 0.03), but more likely to have distant metastasis (2.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.01). FTmC and HCmC were less likely to have nodal metastasis (2.7%, 2.5% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.01). Ten-year OS was decreased in patients with FTmC (91.4%, p = 0.04) and HCmC (89.8%, p < 0.01) compared to PTmC (93.5%). On multivariable analysis, histology was not associated with OS. With HCmC, older age (OR 1.13, p < 0.01) and male gender (OR 2.72, p = 0.03) were associated with decreased OS. In propensity matched analysis, there was no difference in 10-year OS with FTmC and PTmC (91.4% vs. 93.7%, p = 0.54), but HCmC had decreased OS compared to PTmC (89.8% vs. 94.3%, p = 0.04).
      Patients with FTmC have comparable OS to those with PTmC, but HCmC has decreased OS especially in older and male patients.
      PMID: 31863140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Parathyroidectomy is Safe in Elderly Patients: A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Study.

      World journal of surgery 2020 02

      Authors: Khokar AM
      With increasing age, the incidence of hyperparathyroidism is increased. This study evaluates parathyroidectomy outcomes in elderly patients.
      Primary hyperparathyroidism patients having parathyroidectomy as listed in the 2005-2017 ACS-NSQIP database were separated by age: ≤60, 61-79 and ≥80. Outcomes included complications, 30-day mortality, return to the OR, operating times, and hospital length of stay (LOS). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare patients 61-79 and ≥80 to those ≤60. Patients ≤60 and ≥80 were propensity score matched using gender, race, BMI, smoking status, steroid use, modified frailty index (mFI), ASA class, procedure, setting, anesthesia, and wound class. Morbidity and mortality were compared to ACS-NSQIP database patients having elective inguinal hernia repair.
      Of 47,701 patients: 22,220 were ≤60, 22,683 were 61-79, and 2798 were ≥80. Patients ≥80 had more complications (2.3% vs. 1.5% for 61-79 and 1.0% for ≤60, p < 0.01), LOS > 1 day (10.3% vs. 5.8% and 6.7%, p < 0.01), and mortality (0.21% vs. 0.11% and 0.03%, p < 0.01). On multivariable analysis of the overall population, older age, male gender, steroid use, high mFI, outpatient procedure, and general anesthesia increased the risk of complications. On propensity score matched analysis, there was no difference in complications (1.5% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.06) or mortality (0.04% vs. 0.23%, p = 0.12) between patients ≤60 and ≥80. Parathyroidectomy morbidity and mortality was lower than that for elective inguinal hernia repair in patients ≥80 (2.3% vs. 10% and 0.21% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.01).
      Parathyroidectomy is a safe operation, offering lower morbidity and mortality than elective hernia repair in all age groups including octogenarians.
      PMID: 31722077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Thyroid Lobectomy for T1b-T2 Papillary Thyroid Cancer with High-Risk Features.

      Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2020 01

      Authors: Suman P, Razdan SN, Wang CE, Tulchinsky M, Ahmed L, Prinz RA, Winchester DJ
      Thyroid lobectomy (TL) has been proposed as definitive surgical treatment for papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) up to 4 cm. This study evaluates the use and appropriateness of TL for T1b and T2 PTC.
      The National Cancer Database was interrogated for adult patients having TL for T1b-T2 PTC between 2004 and 2014. Patients who should have undergone total thyroidectomy (TT) instead of lobectomy based on high-risk tumor features were identified. The 2 groups were compared for clinical and demographic characteristics, and overall survival.
      Of 8,083 patients undergoing lobectomy, 1,552 patients had high-risk features and should have undergone TT. These included 194 with cN1, 571 with pN1, 307 with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), 645 with extra thyroidal extension (ETE), 567 with positive margins, 42 with poorly differentiated PTC, and 25 with M1 disease. At 10 years of follow-up, 92.4% of appropriate lobectomy (aTL) patients were alive compared with 88.5% of inappropriate lobectomy (iTL) patients (p < 0.001). On univariate and multivariable Cox survival analysis, age greater than 45 years, male sex, comorbidities, government or no insurance, low income, and tumor size >2 cm were associated with poorer survival (all p < 0.05). Thyroid lobectomy patients with high-risk features had significantly higher mortality on unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.59, p < 0.001) and adjusted survival analysis (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.58, p < 0.001). Total thyroidectomy with radioiodine treatment had improved overall survival in comparison to iTL (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83, p < 0.001).
      A substantial number of patients (19.2%) with tumor size >1 cm and high-risk features undergo thyroid lobectomy for PTC. Exclusion of high-risk features is important when adopting lobectomy as the definitive surgical therapy for T1b and T2 PTC because they have a potential adverse effect on long-term survival.
      PMID: 31672668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    • Increasing trend of bilateral neck exploration in primary hyperparathyroidism.

      American journal of surgery 2020 03

      Authors: Khokar AM, Kuchta KM, Moo-Young TA, Winchester DJ, Prinz RA
      Bilateral neck exploration was the standard operation for primary hyperparathyroidism. With improvements in preoperative localization and use of intraoperative PTH (ioPTH) monitoring, minimally invasive unilateral neck exploration has been widely adopted. This study evaluates the trend in parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism.
      Parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism was analyzed from 2010 to 2017. Exclusion criteria included previous neck surgery and concomitant procedures. The operations were classified as unilateral exploration (UE), UE converted to bilateral exploration (BE), or BE. Variables included preoperative and intraoperative factors. Outcomes included persistence, recurrence, permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury.
      Four hundred thirty-one patients were reviewed. Since 2010, the rate of BE has increased from 30% to 50%. Disease duration, presence of bone disease, negative localization, baseline ioPTH <100, and ≥2 abnormal glands have increased. Mean operative time has not changed over time. Two percent of patients had persistent disease, <1% had recurrent disease, and 2% have had reoperation. Nine percent had temporary hypoparathyroidism, and 15 patients had temporary RLN injury.
      This study shows an increasing trend in BE for primary hyperparathyroidism. This increase was associated with lower baseline intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) levels and smaller gland size. The operative approach for parathyroidectomy should be individualized and surgeons should not hesitate to perform BE when needed.
      PMID: 31630823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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