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Sample Report


 

This section contains medications linked to genes in which we found a variant in your DNA that may change how a prescriber should use that drug. These are divided into two categories:

  • Drugs to Avoid
    These are medications for which your DNA changes indicate that you have a significant increase in the incidence of significant side effects or treatment failure. We recommend avoiding these medications and choosing alternative options if possible.

  • Drugs to use with caution or may need dose adjustments
    These are medications from which you may experience more side effects or less likely to benefit from at standard doses. Based on this information, your provider may choose another available treatment option or may consider a dose adjustment.

Each medication on the table has a number superscript and one or more letter super scripts. The number indicates how the medication is expected to work differently for you. The letter superscripts indicate the gene that the DNA change related to that medication is located in.

It is important to remember that other factors outside of your DNA may change which mediations work best for you. No changes to your medications should be made without speaking to the ordering clinician or primary care provider.


 

This section describes the predicted activity of your drug metabolizing enzymes. These are proteins in your body that either break down or activate medications you take. The activity of these enzymes can be divided into five categories called phenotypes:

  • Ultrarapid Metabolizer (UM): Greatly increased activity for a particular enzyme. Expect less benefit from medications broken down by this enzyme and increased side effects from medications activated by this enzyme.
  • Rapid Metabolizer (RM): Increased activity for a particular enzyme. Potentially less benefit from medications broken down by this enzyme and increased side effects from medications activated by this enzyme.
  • Normal Metabolizer (NM): This is the ‘average’ or typical amount of activity for most enzyme. Side effects and drug efficacy are expected to similar to what the majority of patients will experience.
  • Intermediate Metabolizer (IM): Decreased activity for a particular enzyme. Potentially less benefit from medications activate by this enzyme and increased side effects from medications broken down by this enzyme.
  • Poor Metabolizer (PM): Greatly reduced or absent activity for a particular enzyme. Expect less benefit from medications activate by this enzyme and increased side effects from medications broken down by this enzyme.

 

This section describes the genes tested in detail. Each box contains four elements:

  • The gene name.
  • Your genotype: These letters or numbers indicate your specific genetic combination for the gene. These are given in pairs (example: *1/*2) as you have two copies of each gene.
  • Your phenotype: The category of activity or function that your genotype places you in.
  • An interpretive comment: A description of the genotype results in more detail.

Genes with a red box correspond to medications included in the “Avoid Use” medication lists on the prior page while those in orange boxes are associated with medications in the “Use with Caution” category. Genes in uncolored boxes are those in which no changes in your DNA were found, changes were found that did not change medication recommendations, or genes for which there does not yet exist enough evidence to create precise medication recommendations.