Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment Options | For More Information
Heart failure (also known as congestive heart failure) occurs when the heart is unable to effectively pump or fill with blood. Signs of heart failure run the gamut from mild to critical—from feeling winded to having kidney or liver failure. As the leading cause of hospitalizations nationwide, heart failure can often lead to reduced quality of life and death.
Coronary artery disease and hypertension are key contributors to the development of congestive heart failure. However, heart valve disease, arrhythmias, viruses, lung disease or even medication side effects may also play a role. Since the reasons for heart failure are so varied, patients require precise diagnosis and careful treatment for the best outcomes.
Our NorthShore Cardiovascular Institute offers a highly integrated, multidisciplinary approach to providing continuous care to heart failure patients throughout our hospital system. Our team of specialists includes cardiologists, cardiovascular and vascular surgeons, pulmonologists and imaging experts with extensive experience diagnosing and treating the disease with state-of-the-art therapies. In addition to an environment of collaborative care, NorthShore’s leading-edge informatics or electronic medical records system ensures that we seamlessly coordinate our heart failure services from facility to facility.
Congestive heart failure often doesn’t occur overnight. Symptoms of this progressive disease usually show up gradually and steadily worsen over a period of time. Common signs of heart failure include:
- Shortness of breath after exertion, sometimes at rest and/or while sleeping
- Swelling of the ankles, feet and abdomen and/or weight gain due to fluid retention
- Irregular or rapid heart rate
- Fatigue and weakness
- Confusion or dizziness
- Loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting
While patients with heart failure may have one or more of these symptoms, some may have none at all.
NorthShore Cardiovascular Institute’s multidisciplinary specialists fully understand the complexity of heart failure and take an all-encompassing approach to accurately diagnose the disease. If you suspect you have heart failure or have been referred to one of our experts by your primary care physician or via the Institute’s general cardiology group, you will undergo a thorough evaluation.
We will ask you about your medical history and conduct a physical exam. Your NorthShore cardiologist may also recommend several non-invasive diagnostic tests, including chest imaging, EKGs and echocardiograms (ultrasound exams). We often employ exercise stress testing as another diagnostic tool. More extensive testing may include coronary angiography, a minimally-invasive exam that evaluates heart chamber pressure and pumping function.
Strategies to slow the progression of heart failure, improve heart function and decrease symptoms usually begin with medical management. Your NorthShore specialist may recommend a number of medications, including vasodilators and beta-blockers to improve blood flow; diuretics to reduce fluid retention; blood thinners, or anticoagulants, to decrease the possibility of blood clots and digitalis glycosides (digoxin) to enhance heart contractions and improve circulation.
Enhanced management of high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes and/or obesity ‒ common risk factors in the development of heart failure ‒ may also be recommended. Your physician may prescribe hypertensive or cholesterol lowering drugs or suggest lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and diet modification.
Sleep apnea has been associated with cardiac disease. Our heart failure specialists closely collaborate with the multidisciplinary experts at the NorthShore Sleep Center, which provides a full-range of diagnostic and treatment options for sleep disorders.
Heart failure related to heart rhythm disorders such as atrial fibrillation carries a significant risk of sudden cardiac death. For mild to moderate cases of potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, our highly skilled electrophysiologists perform a number of advanced procedures to implant innovative cardiac devices to correct irregular heart rhythms. These include implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) that work either as a pacemaker or defibrillator to prompt your heart into a normal rhythm and ICDs combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), also known as biventricular pacing, for an added therapeutic benefit of coordinated ventricular contraction.
If your heart failure is due to valvular or structural heart disease, the NorthShore Cardiovascular Institute offers a comprehensive heart valve program that features state-of-the-art surgical techniques for valve repair/replacement. At the forefront of valve care, NorthShore was the first medical center in the country to pioneer a minimally-invasive technique for mitral valve repair.
For More Information
Please call 847.570.2250 for more information on heart failure and circulatory support or to schedule an appointment with one of our specialists.