Surgery 2013 Oct
Authors: Cherenfant J, Stocker SJ, Gage MK, Du H, Thurow TA, Odeleye M, Schimpke SW, Kaul KL, Hall CR, Lamzabi I, Gattuso P, Winchester DJ, Marsh RW, Roggin KK, Bentrem DJ, Baker MS, Prinz RA, Talamonti MS,
The biologic potential of nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is highly variable and difficult to predict before resection. This study was conducted to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with malignant behavior and death in patients diagnosed with PNETs.
We used International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes to identify patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PNETs from 1998 to 2011 in the databases of 4 institutions. Functioning PNETs were excluded. Multivariate regression Cox proportional models were constructed to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with distant metastasis and survival.
The study included 128 patients-57 females and 71 males. The age (mean ± standard deviation) was 55 ± 14 years. The body mass index was 28 ± 5 kg/m(2). Eighty-nine (70%) patients presented with symptoms, and 39 (30%) had tumors discovered incidentally. The tumor size was 3.3 ± 2 cm with 56 (44%) of the tumors measuring ≤2 cm. Seventy-three (57%) patients had grade 1 histology tumors, 37 (29%) had grade 2, and 18 (14%) had grade 3. Peripancreatic lymph node involvement was present in 31 patients (24%), absent in 75 (59%), and unknown in 22 (17%). Distant metastasis occurred in 18 patients (14%). There were 12 deaths, including 1 perioperative, 8 disease related, and 3 of unknown cause. With a median follow-up of 33 months, the overall 5-year survival was 75%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified age >55 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-20.58), grade 3 histology (HR, 6.08; 95% CI, 1.32-30.2), and distant metastasis (HR, 8.79; 95% CI, 2.67-28.9) as risk factors associated with death (P < .05). Gender, race, body mass index, clinical symptoms, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and tumor size were not related to metastasis or survival (P > .05). Three patients with tumors ≤2 cm developed distant metastasis resulting in 2 disease-related deaths.
Age >55 years, grade 3 histology, and distant metastasis predict a greater risk of death from nonfunctioning PNETs. Resection or short-term surveillance should be considered regardless of tumor size.
PMID: 24074416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
American journal of clinical oncology 2013 Feb 20
Authors: Hayman AV, Stocker SJ, Baker MS, Bentrem DJ, Prinz RA, Marsh RD, Talamonti MS,
BACKGROUND:: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is the most common serum biomarker used in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC). Elevated preoperative levels have been shown to correlate with more advanced stage, greater risk of unresectability, and overall worse survival. The prognostic value of CA 19-9 nonproduction, which is present in an estimated 5% to 15% of the population, is unclear. We sought to determine whether CA 19-9 nonproduction was associated with worse survival after PC resection. METHODS:: We retrospectively reviewed our institution's prospective pancreatic database for all PC patients with documented preoperative CA 19-9 values who underwent resection with curative intent from March 1992 to August 2009. After excluding 10 perioperative deaths, 200 patients remained for analysis. RESULTS:: Mean and median follow-up was 23.3 and 16.1 months, respectively. Median survival in months for patients with preoperative CA 19-9 levels in U/mL by category was as follows: normal (5.1 to 36.9): 32, nonproduction (≤5): 21, mildly elevated (37 to 99.9): 35, highly elevated (100+): 16. Factors significantly associated with worse overall survival were: nonwhite race, nonproduction or highly elevated preoperative CA 19-9 (≥100 U/mL), estimated blood loss ≥1 L, tumor size (≥2 cm), lymph node-positivity, and advanced (3/4) histologic grade. On multivariate analysis, only CA 19-9 nonproduction or highly elevated production, estimated blood loss ≥1 L, advanced histologic grade, and node positivity remained significant in the final model. CONCLUSIONS:: CA 19-9 nonproduction is not associated with improved survival after pancreatic cancer resection, as has previously been asserted, when compared with patients with normal and elevated levels.
PMID: 23428954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2013 Mar
Authors: Baker MS, Zyromski NJ,
The 46th annual Pancreas Club meeting was held on May 18 and 19 at the Hyatt Regency Mission Bay in San Diego, California. A brief summary of the meeting including an overview in table form is presented below.
PMID: 23297027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2013 Feb
Authors: Baker MS, Sherman KL, Stocker S, Hayman AV, Bentrem DJ, Prinz RA, Talamonti MS,
Established systems for grading postoperative complications do not change the assigned grade when multiple interventions or readmissions are required to manage a complication. Studies using these systems may misrepresent outcomes for the surgical procedures being evaluated. We define a quality outcome for distal pancreatectomy (DP) and use this metric to compare laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP).
Records for patients undergoing DP between January 2006 and December 2009 were reviewed. Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb, IV, and V complications were classified as severe adverse--poor quality--postoperative outcomes (SAPOs). II and IIIa complications requiring either significantly prolonged overall lengths of stay including readmissions within 90 days or more than one invasive intervention were also classified as SAPOs.
By Clavien-Dindo system alone, 91 % of DP patients had either no complication or a low/moderate grade (I, II, IIIa) complication. Using our reclassification, however, 25 % had a SAPO. Patients undergoing LDP demonstrated a Clavien-Dindo complication profile identical to that for SDP but demonstrated significantly shorter overall lengths of stay, were less likely to require perioperative transfusion, and less likely to have a SAPO.
Established systems undergrade the severity of some complications following DP. Using a procedure-specific metric for quality, we demonstrate that LDP affords a higher quality postoperative outcome than ODP.
PMID: 23225109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2012 May
Authors: Zyromski NJ, Baker MS,
Background: The 45th meeting of the Pancreas Club was held on 5 and 6 May 2011 at the Robert H. Lurie Medical Research Center in Chicago, IL. An outstanding program of 47 oral presentations (Table 1) and 137 poster presentations was chosen from a record number of submitted abstracts. Ten posters each day were chosen for presentation as part of the Professor Rounds portion of the formal poster viewing program. Summaries of the oral presentations are provided; published work is referenced. Full abstracts are available on the Pancreas Club website: http://pancreasclub.com.
PMID: 22362070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
American journal of surgery 2011 Mar
Authors: Baker MS, Bentrem DJ, Ujiki MB, Stocker S, Talamonti MS,
Published comparisons of laparoscopic (laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy [LDP]) to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) identify improved lengths of stay (LOS) after LDP but do not include data on readmissions.
Demographic, operative, and postoperative outcomes data for patients undergoing LDP or ODP between August 2007 and December 2009 were culled from our prospectively accruing pancreatic database. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine cause, treatment, and LOS for readmissions.
Patients undergoing LDP were statistically identical to those undergoing ODP in regard to age, presentation, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, operative times, tumor sizes, morbidity, mortality, and pancreatic fistula rates. The initial LOS was statistically shorter for those undergoing LDP (4.8 ± .1 days vs 8.7 ± .1 days, P < .001). The readmission rate for LDP was statistically higher than for ODP (25% vs 8%, P < .05). Overall LOS for LDP was 7.2 ± .3 days versus 9.3 ± .1 days for ODP (P = .2).
Adding readmission LOS to initial LOS eliminates the perceived effect of LDP to accelerate recovery.
PMID: 21367366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
American journal of surgery 2010 Mar
Authors: Fronza JS, Bentrem DJ, Baker MS, Talamonti MS, Ujiki MB,
The pancreatic remnant remains a significant source of morbidity during laparoscopic pancreatectomy. Previous series have relied heavily on the endoscopic stapler for transection. Our study is the first to report use of a laparoscopic radiofrequency device for pancreatic transection.
The laparoscopic Habib 4x delivers high-energy radio waves through a hand-held device consisting of 4 electrodes and allows for bloodless tissue transection. We retrospectively evaluated prospectively collected data. Fourteen patients were identified and used in our analysis.
There were no conversions, blood transfusions, reoperations, or mortalities. Average length of stay was 4.6 days. There was 1 readmission. Clinically significant fistula occurred in 2 patients (14%), only one of which required an intervention.
Radiofrequency energy is safe and feasible for use during laparoscopic pancreatic transection. Moreover, it is technically simple to use.
PMID: 20226919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of surgical oncology 2010 Mar 15
Authors: Abbott DE, Baker MS, Talamonti MS,
The optimal therapy for pancreatic cancer continues to evolve. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a key component of current treatment regimens, and evaluation of previous treatment options will help guide future trials. Here the authors present a review of the current literature with discussion of future directions.
PMID: 20187063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Surgery 2009 Oct
Authors: Baker MS, Bentrem DJ, Ujiki MB, Stocker S, Talamonti MS,
Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LP) is an emerging modality for managing benign and premalignant neoplasms of the pancreatic body and tail. The efficacy of LP has been examined in single and multi-institutional retrospective reviews but not compared prospectively to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP).
We maintain a prospectively accruing database tracking peri-operative clinical parameters for all patients presenting to our tertiary care facility for treatment of pancreatic disease. We queried this database for patients undergoing LP or ODP between January 2003 and May 2008. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative characteristics were compared using standard statistical methods.
One-hundred twelve patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. Eighty-five underwent SDP. Twenty-eight LPs were attempted and 27 completed laparoscopically. One LP was converted to an open procedure because of bleeding and was excluded from study. In comparison to ODP, patients undergoing LP had statistically similar pre-operative demographics, disease comorbidities, tumor size, length of operation, rates of postoperative mortality, postoperative morbidity, and pancreatic fistula. Patients undergoing LP were less likely to have ductal adenocarcinoma and had fewer lymph nodes harvested in their resection but had a significantly shorter postoperative length of stay and significantly lower estimated blood loss than those undergoing ODP.
Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is a safe, effective modality for managing premalignant neoplasms of the pancreatic body and tail, providing a morbidity rate comparable to that for ODP and substantially shorter length of stay. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy fails to provide a lymphadenectomy comparable to ODP. This may limit the applicability of LP to the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PMID: 19789022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2009 Sep
Authors: Pitt SC, Pitt HA, Baker MS, Christians K, Touzios JG, Kiely JM, Weber SM, Wilson SD, Howard TJ, Talamonti MS, Rikkers LF,
The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of enucleation versus resection in patients with small pancreatic, ampullary, and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
Multi-institutional retrospective review identified all patients with pancreatic and peri-pancreatic NETs who underwent surgery from January 1990 to October 2008. Patients with tumors < or =3 cm and without nodal or metastatic disease were included.
Of the 271 patients identified, 122 (45%) met the inclusion criteria and had either an enucleation (n = 37) and/or a resection (n = 87). Enucleated tumors were more likely to be in the pancreatic head (P = 0.003) or functioning (P < 0.0001) and, when applicable, less likely to result in splenectomy (P = 0.0003). The rate of pancreatic fistula formation was higher after enucleation (P < 0.01), but the fistula severity tended to be worse following resection (P = 0.07). The enucleation and resection patients had similar operative times, blood loss, overall morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, and 5-year survival. However, for pancreatic head tumors, enucleation resulted in decreased blood loss, operative time, and length of stay compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy (P < 0.05).
These data suggest that most outcomes of enucleation and resection for small pancreatic and peri-pancreatic NETs are comparable. However, enucleation has better outcomes than pancreaticoduodenectomy for head lesions and the advantage of preserving splenic function for tail lesions.
PMID: 19548038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]