Cervical Cancer: Prevention and Early Detection

Wednesday, January 28, 2015 3:24 PM comments (0)

cervical cancerThough highly preventable and treatable if caught in its early stages, cervical cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The most significant risk factor for cervical cancer is the sexually transmitted virus, human papillomavirus, or HPV.

There are over 100 different types of HPV that are broken down into two categories: low-risk HPVs, which rarely cause cancer but can cause genital warts, and high-risk HPVs, which may cause  cancer.  HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for upwards of 70 percent of all cervical cancers. 

Kerry Swenson, MD, PhD , OBGYN at NorthShore, stresses the importance of measures and tests that can prevent or identify cervical cancer in its early and most treatable stages: 

HPV vaccine. More than 80 percent of women will be exposed to at least one strain of HPV in their lifetime.  Thankfully, there is a vaccine that can protect against the four most common strains of HPV. The vaccine only works to prevent infection and is not effective if an infection is already present, which is why it is recommended that these vaccines are administered to girls and women between the ages of 9 and 26, and boys and men between the ages of 9 and 21.  It is best to complete the HPV series before any sexual activity takes place with a potential  exposure  to the HPV virus.   By protecting against HPV, the risk of developing cervical cancer is significantly reduced.  HPV vaccines do not provide protection against all cancer-causing HPV infections so regular screening is still important.

Pap and HPV testing. Regular screening with a Pap smear may identify cervical cancer or cellular changes of the cervix that can lead to cervical cancer. Women should begin Pap tests at age 21 and every three years until age 30.  At age 30, cotesting with a Pap smear and high-risk HPV test should be performed every five years, unless otherwise directed by your physician.  

Well-rounded health. A healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, exercise and quitting smoking all contribute to lowering one’s risk for cervical cancer as well as many other types of cancer. 

January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month. Remember to raise awareness about cervical cancer prevention among the important women in your life this month and year-round. 

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Protecting Young People from HPV Infection

Thursday, January 26, 2012 8:56 AM comments (1)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus simply spread by skin-to-skin contact. There are many different types of HPV (nearly 200). However, 40 of these types can infect the genital areas, mouth or throat of men and women during sexual contact.HPV

Over 80% of sexually active women and more than 50% of sexually active men will have acquired genital HPV infection at some point during their life. This makes genital HPV the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, most people who become infected remain unaware of it and infect their partners before they clear it on their own.

Some HPV types result in genital warts; other types are associated with cervical, vaginal, oral, anal and penile cancers. Fortunately, parents and patients can take important steps to help reduce HPV infection risks.

Kenneth Fox, MD, Pediatrician at NorthShore, offers tips on reducing HPV infection risks:

  • Communicate: Talk to your children and teens about safe sex and STIs. Let them know that their risks can be reduced by abstinence (including oral sex), by delaying sexual initiation, by limiting the number of sex partners and by using latex condoms during sexual contact.
  • Vaccinate: HPV vaccine helps prevent the most common types of sexually acquired HPV. The vaccine is available for males and females ages 9-26. Three doses of the vaccine are recommended, and the greatest protection is achieved if all doses are completed before sexual initiation and exposure to HPV. Notably, 75% of new HPV infections occur between ages 15-24 years, and over half of these new infections occur within the first 3 years after sexual initiation.

Have you spoken with your child or his/her primary care physician about this vaccine?

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