There are two types of stroke: ischemic, which occur as the result of a blockage inside a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain, and hemorrhagic, which occur when a blood vessel ruptures and causes bleeding in the brain. When the brain does not
receive a continuous supply of blood, brain cells die. Time is of the utmost importance in the treatment of stroke, and yet many do not call 911 when stroke symptoms arise.
Deborah Lynch, Advance Practice Nurse and Stroke Coordinator at NorthShore, answered our questions on stroke, including signs, risk factors, recovery and more, to raise awareness that stroke is a brain attack and a medical emergency. Don’t
ignore the signs.
What are the signs of a stroke? Are there early signs that might go unnoticed or ignored?
We teach the public to be F.A.S.T., which stands for facial droop, arm and/or leg weakness/numbness, speech/language difficulty and the T is for timing, which means getting medical attention as soon as possible. More subtle signs of stroke
would be similar to the ones listed above but possibly not as pronounced. For instance, if a person notices sudden weakness of his arm and leg on the same side, though he is able to use them, that is still a sign of stroke and it warrants emergent medical
attention. The real problem with stroke and public awareness is there usually is no pain associated with stroke so people wait and see if the symptoms will go away. Time is of essence!
Why is it so important to get medical attention fast?
Brain cells (neurons) die within seconds of not receiving oxygenated blood. The faster a person with stroke symptoms gets to the hospital the better. A person may be candidate for our only FDA-approved treatment for acute stroke: tPA (alteplase). But, this
can only be administered if symptom onset is less than 3-4.5 hours from time of drug administration. Stroke is a medical emergency. Call 911.
What happens after the hospital phase of stroke recovery?
Once the patient is medically stable, they will often go to either a sub-acute rehabilitation facility or an in-patient rehabilitation facility as the next level of care. Both include physical, occupational and speech therapy but in-patient requires that a
patient can tolerate at least three hours of therapy in a given day. Often, patients who have a lot of deficits are unable to withstand this level of therapy at the beginning. In those cases, sub-acute rehab is the next best place. Patients will be able to
get upwards of two hours of therapy a day but it is much more dependent on patient’s endurance. Typical length of stay times are variable and depend on how well or poorly a patient is doing.
After a stroke, how long can patients continue to improve?
Improvement can continue a year from the stroke but improvement is not as dramatic as during the first 3-12 months. That said, people who have language difficulties from stroke have been known to improve for years afterward.
Is a younger stroke patient likely to have a better recovery than someone who is older?
Stroke can happen at any age and when it comes to stroke age is relative. Someone can have a more severe stroke as a younger person than an older person. Usually the younger patients have fewer chronic health issues though. If you are in poor health before
a stroke, it’s more difficult to recover primarily because there is less reserve. That said, I have seen quite large strokes in an elderly population with good outcomes. The brain is a very complex organ and everyone really recovers differently. On the whole,
after a stroke, people improve. Where one can functionally get to remains unknown.
If there is a family history of stroke and high blood pressure, what can you to do prevent stroke.
Regular aerobic exercise and healthy eating are terrific approaches to what we refer to as "primary stroke prevention." Hypertension, or high blood pressure (typically greater than 130/85), is the number one risk factor for stroke. If you do have high blood
pressure, make sure to treat it. Do not delay. Hypertension is a "silent killer.” People usually don't feel any different with high blood pressure.
What’s a “mini stroke”? Can it lead to a more severe stroke?
Mini stroke is a term we in the stroke field would like to do away with. It has been used in the past to refer to
TIA (transient ischemic attack). This is an event with stroke-like symptoms that usually resolves itself within minutes. The problem with this term is that it sounds almost cute and harmless. In actuality, it carries the same risk of future
stroke as an actual stroke. TIAs are definitely warning signs of stroke. We take these events very seriously with the hope of identifying a person's stroke risk factors and reduce them as much as possible to hopefully prevent a stroke in the future. These
preventative measures include lifestyle changes like diet and exercise.
In addition to healthy eating and exercise, is an aspirin regimen recommended after a TIA?
We recommend at least aspirin 81mg (baby aspirin) or plavix 75mg after a person has had a TIA, especially if there is a history of diabetes, unless there is known contraindication.
The importance of a good night’s sleep can’t be overstated and not getting enough can lead to more than simply waking up on the wrong side of
the bed. Prolonged sleep deprivation can raise your risk for serious health problems like heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. Sleep isn’t a waste of time; it’s an investment in your health.
The benefits of sleep are many. According to
Thomas Freedom, MD, Neurologist and Program Director of Sleep Medicine at NorthShore, a good night’s rest can improve:
Remember that the amount of sleep required varies with each individual, but most adults need approximately 7-8 hours a night.
Do you think you get enough sleep each night? Do you make sleep a priority?
Skin cancer is the most common kind of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the U.S. And despite increased awareness of causes,
risk factors and methods of prevention, the rates of skin cancer, including the three major types—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma—continue to climb. Due in part to the use of tanning beds, rates of melanoma, the deadliest type of
skin cancer, are especially high in young women in their 20s and 30s.
While prevention should be the priority—limiting exposure to sunlight, using sunscreen and avoiding the use of tanning beds—early detection is the next best thing. If detected early, skin cancer is almost always curable.
Britt Hanson, DO, medical oncology at NorthShore, shares some of her tips for identifying skin cancer, including what you should keep an
eye out for during regular self-checks.
What precautions do you take to reduce your risk of skin cancer?
A mutation found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes puts women at an increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. After learning that both her aunt and mother had the BRCA1 mutation,
Sivan Schondorf was tested for the mutation at 24 years old and discovered that she was also positive. She began frequent surveillance for breast and ovarian cancer immediately. At 28, when she felt that surveillance was no longer enough, she
opted to take control of her risk and undergo a preventative, nipple-sparing mastectomy with reconstruction at NorthShore.
With BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the news, she shares her story so that other women know how to find the correct information about their risks and options.
What were your initial thoughts when you learned you tested positive for the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation?
I was sad and worried to learn I had a BRCA 1 mutation, but I was able to push a lot of that fear aside because I was still years away from the recommended surgery time. I was 24 years old at the time.
What prompted you to get tested for this mutation? And then why did you decide to undergo a risk-reducing, nipple-sparing mastectomy with reconstruction.
My maternal aunt had what is now known as a triple negative BRCA1 breast cancer that metastasized and resulted in her passing before she was 50 years old. Our family OBGYN, Dr. Lapata, had good instincts and recommended that she test for the BRCA mutation.
The red flags being that she had a cancer that was premenopausal and aggressive, and that she was of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.
This was in 2000, so it wasn't something any of us had heard of. Once my aunt tested positive for the mutation, my mother found out she had the mutation as well. I was subsequently tested in 2005 and with a positive result, I opted for surveillance. At 24,
I thought I was years away from any possible surgical interventions; however, after only after three years of surveillance, I felt the threat of cancer looming. I realized that surveillance wasn't protecting me; it was only enabling me to discover it at an
early stage. The only way to significantly lower my risk was mastectomy, so I scheduled my surgery for the next year, which was around my 28th birthday.
The nipple-sparing one-step was the best option for me because it required less surgery than having expansion over time. I was also comfortable keeping my nipples because, aside from the more natural, aesthetic result, research shows that keeping one's nipples
is safe as long as the surgery is done preventatively rather than when cancer is present.
How has this decision impacted your life?
In the very short-term, I felt different from my friends because I was thinking about things that women my age don’t normally have to think about. My thoughts were often on my situation. Five years later, as a working mother and wife, I hardly ever
think about it, except at my yearly clinical exam. It's something from my past that I faced head on.
I’m so much more comfortable now that my risk for breast cancer is so much lower. I do still monitor my ovaries at least twice a year. I have not yet pursued surgical intervention because I’m not done having children and do no feel the cost-benefit of beginning
menopause at 31 is worthwhile. I’m looking at having an oopherectomy by age 40.
It’s been a few years since you had this surgery. How are you doing?
I'm great! Having a baby (and now expecting my second) has done far more to change my body than the mastectomy did. I don't regret it for a second. I would do anything to improve my chances of being around to see my children grow. I want to be there
for them as long as I possibly can. Clearly, Angelina Jolie felt the same way, and I’m proud to have been one of her trail blazers!
What advice would give to women who are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer?
Every woman comes to a decision and place of acceptance differently. We all have different perceptions of our bodies and what we can and can't live without. Some have lost mothers due to this mutation and some find out about BRCA unexpectedly, without
even knowing about the elevated risk of cancer in their families.
Each woman must decide what level of risk she can live with. After watching my Aunt Linda die so quickly from this insidious disease, and also having my mother as a role model for me when she had her surgery, I decided that surgery at an early age was right
for me. It doesn't mean its right for everyone.
The most important thing is for women to have the most accurate information, which they can get from genetic counselors and doctors. They should also seek support from the local BRCA community so they can make informed decisions and have the emotional support
that a community can provide. FORCE (Facing our Risk of Cancer Empowered) has provided my family with that support, and we try to give back to our community as much as possible.
Is there any other information you’d like to share?
I filmed my surgery process at NorthShore’s Evanston Hospital and at home in order to help empower other women and to make the experience more meaningful for myself. Because I'm not a filmmaker, I have not yet been able to edit the hours of footage.
Seeing Angelina Jolie come out to the public has reignited my passion to finish this short film, which I hope will help other women.
There are many rewards but also many responsibilities that come with palliative caregiving. And while many caregivers say that those
rewards make the effort worth it, there is no denying that the responsibilities caregivers shoulder on a daily basis can be stressful. Studies show that between 40-70% of caregivers suffer significant levels of stress and about half of significantly stressed
caregivers meet the criteria for major depression.
Recognizing and celebrating those rewards and learning to acknowledge when stress levels are too high are essential for the physical and mental well-being of all caregivers, both familial and professional.
Michael Marschke, MD, palliative care physician at NorthShore, shares his recommendations on how caregivers can best cope with and manage
Remember that in order to provide quality care to a family member or a client you have to care for yourself too. Once you do, the rewards of caregiving will be that much richer.
Have you ever cared for an elderly or disabled family member? Are you currently employed as a palliative caregiver? If so, how did you cope with stress?
Mother's Day might have passed but every day can be a celebration of moms, moms-to-be and the many adventures of motherhood. For expectant mothers, the experts at NorthShore University HealthSystem have created a checklist for the stages of pregnancy, week
by week. Every mommy-to-be can learn how to take care of herself during each and every stage of pregnancy and track her baby’s developments along the way.
Click on the infographic
to learn more about the stages of pregnancy and how a mommy-to-be can prepare for baby.
They are everywhere, from drugstores to dedicated brands. It’s impossible to miss all the makeup, moisturizers, anti-aging serums and cleansers with the words “natural” and “chemical-free” written in bold on their packaging. But are these “natural” options
any better for your skin than more conventional skincare products? The only way to find out is to ask your skin.
When it comes to skincare, it’s what your skin wants and how it reacts to what you put on it that should matter most. Certain skin types are just as likely to react to natural ingredients as they are to non-natural ingredients. Natural also doesn’t necessarily
mean the product is safer for your skin or that it will produce more impressive results.
Give any product a month or more to determine its effectiveness. If you like what you see, you might have found a good match. If you react poorly, discontinue use and try all over again with something new.
If using natural products is important to you,
Sarah Kasprowicz, MD, dermatologist at NorthShore University HealthSystem, shares some tips how to find the best product for your skin and what to look out for before buying:
1. Read the ingredients. Make sure to read the ingredient label on all skincare products like you would a food label. It will help you get to know the ingredients you are putting on your skin. The word “natural” doesn’t necessarily mean
the product contains only “all natural” ingredients. In fact, it might contain some of the same ingredients as its non-natural counterparts.
2. Keep an eye out for these natural ingredients:
3. Use sunscreen. Always include a sunscreen in your skincare routine. Look for a sunscreen that is labeled as “broad spectrum,” which means the product has been tested and proven to protect against deeply penetrating UVA rays and shorter-waved
UVB rays. Zinc oxide, a physical blocker, is considered more “natural” than many of the other ingredients found in sunscreen.
Have you gone natural with your skincare regimen? Why or why not? What’s worked for you?
Obesity is a condition that affects nearly one third of men and women in the United States, and its risk factors can cause
severe and often life-threatening illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke and an increased risk for developing breast, prostate and colon cancers. While a healthy diet and consistent exercise routine are the best ways to stay fit, that combination
might not be enough for everyone to maintain a healthy weight.
For those who struggle with severe weight loss problems, bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery, can offer life-changing solutions. The procedures that fall under the category of bariatric surgery reduce the size of the stomach in various ways, restricting
the amount of food patients can eat and increasing their ability to lose weight rapidly.
These procedures include:
Woody Denham, MD, bariatric surgeon at NorthShore, shares some of the basic criteria one must meet for weight loss surgery:
As with any surgery, it is important to discuss what treatment options would be best for you with your physician. The weight loss journey doesn’t end with surgery. Losing weight will still require basic lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise.
To learn more about bariatric surgery and to determine if you’d be a good candidate, attend one of NorthShore’s
Bariatric Information Sessions. This free session is offered the 3rd Tuesday of every month from 6-7p.m. at 501 Skokie Blvd. in Northbrook.
What do you do control your weight? Have you had weight loss surgery?