Currently there is no early detection test for ovarian cancer. Until such a test exists, raising awareness
about the signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer is essential to early diagnosis. If diagnosed and treated early, ovarian cancer survival rates are over 90%.
As part of Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month,
Carolyn Kirschner, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, answers questions on ovarian cancer, from things you can do now to reduce your risk to the early symptoms you just might overlook.
What are some early signs of ovarian cancer that might be overlooked or ignored? How do you know when it is time to see a doctor?
Abdominal pain, bloating, being full after eating a little, new constipation or diarrhea, urinary frequency, fullness in the pelvis, low back pain, nausea/vomiting, fatigue are all possible symptoms of ovarian cancer—but are vague and may be symptoms
of other problems. If symptoms occur several times per week for a month, medical care should be sought. Start with a good primary care physician who can do an exam and then possible imaging studies.
What is the most cost-effective screening test for early detection of ovarian cancer?
Most experts would say that screening should only be performed on women who are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, for example those with a BRCA gene or a strong family history of ovarian cancer. These people may be screened with ultrasound and serum
(blood) CA125. Unfortunately, there may be false positives, especially in younger women, which may result in unnecessary tests or even surgery.
Is it possible to mistake ovarian cancer for fibroids on both a transvaginal ultrasound and a pelvic MRI?
Yes, mistaking ovarian cancer for fibroids can happen. Fibroids are common and ovarian cancer is not. Fortunately, imaging has greatly improved, so this mistake does not happen commonly these days. If there are any questions or concerns about a diagnosis, a
woman who undergoes ultrasound and/or MRI imaging can and should request a disc with the images on them and get a second opinion.
If there is a family history of the disease but no BRCA gene mutations, is your risk for developing ovarian cancer still higher? What can you do to reduce that risk?
Most ovarian cancer is not hereditary, so risk should be the same as the general population, which is less than 2%. While never having children seems to be associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, I would never recommend getting pregnant just to
decrease the risk. If you are premenopausal, oral contraceptives may decrease your risk. Birth control is protective because it prevents ovulation. It is theorized that breaks in the surface of the ovary, which occur with ovulation, may result in injuries
that can lead to cancer. Vitamin D may also be protective.
Diet is important. Cancer risk is increased with obesity. I recommend a plant-based, whole-grain diet. Limit saturated fats, white flour and refined sugar. I am a firm believer in exercise for weight control and sanity.
Keep in contact periodically with the genetics staff, in case there is a breakthrough in this area. NorthShore has a high-risk clinic through Division of Gynecologic Oncology, and this may be a good way of staying on the "cutting edge.”
What is the best scan for ovarian cancer? CT, MRI, ultrasound or PET?
Each has its advantages. The ultrasound is the least invasive, least expensive and does not use radiation. The CT and MRI look at anatomy. The PET looks at function. For screening, the ultrasound is best.