Research Institute
Center for Biomedical Research Informatics

Director, Biomedical Research Informatics

Contact Information
847.570.8033 fax


  • Undergraduate: B.S., Widener University, May 1968.
  • Medical School: M.D., West Virginia University School of Medicine, May 1972.
  • Post Graduate: Clinical Scholars Program, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, The George Wash­ington University, 1975-1978.  Clinical Instructor, Health Care Sciences, The George Washington University, School of Medicine, 1975-1977.
  • Residency: Intern, Department of Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1972-1973.  Assistant Resident in Medicine, The George Washington University, 1974-1975.
  • Fellowship: Fellow, Critical Care Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1977-1978.

Board Certification

  • National Board of Medical Examiners, Diplomat, No. 125873.
  • American Board of Internal Medicine, Diplomat, No. 59132.

Research Interests

In September 2012, Dr. Knaus assumed the position of Director of Applied Genomics Research Informatics within NorthShore University Health System’s (NorthShore) Center for Clinical and Research Informatics.  NorthShore has one of the most sophisticated electronically enabled integrated health systems in the country. NorthShore initiated its EMR in 2003, the first Epic® installation and since then has won numerous awards for its use of health information technology. At NorthShore, Dr. Knaus oversees the first production integration of Health Heritage, a novel family history and genomics-based cancer risk assessment and decision support tool with Epic®, the nation’s most widely deployed electronic medical record platform. The Health Heritage project will test the hypothesis that empowering patients with the ability to electronically access, input, and share their personal medical histories with family members will address a long-standing inability of clinicians to collect accurate and comprehensive family medical histories. When combined with traditional clinical and non-clinical data sources and merged with new biologic and genomic data, this capability can then be evaluated as the foundation for providing more precise, patient-centric genomic medicine. Patients, providers, and families will be able to interact with their electronic medical records to exchange new and existing data and enter their own data. The system will integrate new interpreted and clinically relevant genotype or sequencing data by automating complex and now unreliable processes of data delivery, and will perform evidence-based analyses to provide clinical decision support. User testing and evaluation will be conducted to identify possible barriers and suggest appropriate solutions to provider acceptance of its evidence-based recommendations and patient use of its family social networking techniques.

Academic and Administrative Appointments

  • Director, ICU Research Unit,  George Washington University Medical Center, 1978-1995.
  • Assistant Professor, Anesthesiology and Clinical Engineering; Co-Director, Intensive Care Unit, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1978-1981.
  • Associate Professor, Anesthesiology and Computer Medicine; Co-Director, Intensive Care Unit, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1981-1987.
  • Professeur agrege, Universite Paris-Val-de-Marne, Hopital Henri Mondor, 1984.
  • Professor, Anesthesiology and Computer Medicine; Co-Director, Intensive Care Unit, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1987-1995.
  • Evelyn Troup Hobson Professor and Founding Chairman, Department of Health Evaluation Sciences (named changed in 2005 to Department of Public Health Sciences) 1995-2010.
  • Evelyn Troup Hobson Professor of Health Evaluation Sciences and Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 1995-2012.
  • Professor Emeritus, The University of Virginia 2012- .
  • Visiting Professor University of Connecticut Health Center & Director of Biomedical Informatics at the Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, 2010-present.
  • Director of Applied Genomics Research Informatics, Center for Clinical and Research Informatics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, 2012-present.
  • Professor of Medicine, The University of Chicago 2013- .

Other Positions:

  • Foreign Service Medical Officer, U.S. Information Agency, assigned U.S.S.R., 1973-1974
  • Professional Staff Member, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, DHEW, 1975-1976
  • Executive Committee, U.S.-U.S.S.R. Health Exchange, 1976-1978
  • Consultant, National Council for International Health, 1975-1977
  • Consultant, The Cleveland Foundation, 1981
  • Consultant, National Geographic Society, 1983
  • Board of Trustees, Widener University, 1982-1986
  • Panel Member, Life Sustaining Technologies and the Elderly, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, 1985-1986
  • Editorial Board, Reanimation Soins Intensifs Medecine D'urgence, Paris, 1984-1990
  • Editorial Board, Intensive Care World, 1985-1990
  • Editorial Board, Theoretical Surgery, 1987-1990
  • Advisory Board, Intensive Care Medicine, 1991-1995
  • National Advisory Committee, Clinical Nurse Scholar Program, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1988-1990
  • Director, Program on the Care of Critically Ill Hospitalized Adults, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1987-1997
  • Founder & Chief Scientific Advisor, APACHE Medical Systems, Inc., 1988-2000
  • Board of Directors (1994-2000) and President and CEO (July-December 2000), APACHE Medical Systems, Inc.
  • Editorial Board, The American Journal of Medicine, 2000-present
  • Moderator Board, Evidence for Genomic Applications , 2009-present

Career Summary

The George Washington University
Director, ICU Research Unit, and Professor, School of Medicine • 1978 to 1995

Created clinical research unit focused on developing a severity of illness and prognostic scoring system for critically ill hospitalized patients, named APACHE (Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation).  Expanded initial database of 500 cases to more than 1 million cases worldwide, with databases in Europe, Australia, South America, and Japan establishing the APACHE system as the international standard for evaluating and predicting outcomes of patients treated within Intensive Care Units.  Designed and successfully managed the landmark Study to Understand Prognoses, Preferences, and Outcomes from Treatment (SUPPORT) Trial, the largest and most well funded ($30 million) clinical trial of physician decision making ever completed. SUPPORT is widely credited with initiating and defining the ongoing national debate and re-examination of U.S. approach to provision of care for seriously ill and dying patients.

APACHE Medical Systems, Inc.
Founder (1988), Director (1994), and past President and CEO (2000)

Founded one of the first commercial decision-support software and outcomes-management companies in order to disseminate and support APACHE approach to risk assessment and outcomes evaluation. Following initial start-up financing, Dr. Knaus attracted venture and private funding totaling $15M over five years. Recruited corporate management and directed strategic aspects of product development, which received the Smithsonian award for innovative contemporary software design.  Dr. Knaus helped to support the Initial Public offering in 1996 with initial market value of $25M on NASDAQ (AMSI). He participated in the creation of a new market for disease-specific modeling and pre-trial strategic approaches for design, data analysis, FDA approval, and cost-effectiveness studies for biotech and pharmaceutical developers and health care service companies. From July 1 to December 31, 2000, he assumed responsibilities as President and CEO as part of a major re-structuring and subsequent sale to Cerner® Corporation (CERN: NASDAQ).

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
Professor & Founding Chairman, Department of Health Evaluation Sciences (re-titled to Department of Public Health Sciences in 2005) • 1995 to 2010                               

Designed and developed a new department within the School of Medicine. Drafted strategic and business plans, established five-year objectives, recruited division directors, executive director, and initial faculty. Initiated external research and contract partners and negotiated contracts with health care informatics, managed care, and biotechnology firms. Attracted first clinical genetics research grant at UVA for development of clinical risk assessment software application. Developed integrated clinical and administrative data repository to support research and management efforts throughout school of medicine and health system. Initiated and led development of new Master’s degree program in Clinical Research that is currently the second-largest graduate degree program in the University of Virginia College of Arts and Sciences and has lead to the development of a new university-wide integrated and nationally accredited Master’s of Public Health degree. In 2005, the department changed its title to Public Health Sciences.  By 2010, the Department of Public Health Sciences had 70 full-time faculty and staff and 40 associate faculty members in three divisions, Public Health Policy and Practice, Clinical Informatics, and Biostatistics and Epidemiology; each with Division Directors and dedicated physical space. The Division of Public Health Policy and Practice is focused on education- from undergraduate to graduate and leads the department’s community outreach programs. The Division of Clinical Informatics leads the School of Medicine and the University in clinical and bioinformatics research. It maintains a state of the art Clinical Data Repository that has integrated clinical, administrative, financial, and outcome information on over 1.4 million UVA in and outpatients. The Division also shares a joint National Library of Medicine training grant with the department of Systems Engineering for a combined Masters Program in Health Informatics and Systems Engineering and it partners with the Department of Computer Science to support Bioinformatics across the University. The Division of Biostatics and Epidemiology has faculty that both perform independent NIH funded research that ranges from bioinformatics to the design of Phase 1 clinical trials as well as participating in collaborative research on over $100 million of federally funded grants.  The director of this Division Jae K. Lee, recruited as a junior faculty member by Dr. Knaus, is now conducting cutting edge research in the gene expression of tumors to guide the personalized prescription of chemotherapy and has recently completed a new textbook on Statistical Bioinformatics published by Wiley-Blackwell.  Dr. Knaus also personally lead the development of and recruitment for a university-wide effort to develop human genetics research and education programs with the establishment of a new university-wide Center for Public Health Genomics in 2007 that, under Dr. Stephen Rich’s leadership has achieved external funding over $50M.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia  & University of Connecticut, Farmington and Storrs, Connecticut
Professor of Health Evaluation Sciences (UVA) and Visiting Professor of Medicine (UCONN) and Director of Biomedical Informatics for the Connecticut Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences 2010-Present

In 2010 Dr. Knaus completed his third and final five-year term as Chairman of Public Health Sciences at The University of Virginia (see below).  He continued his research efforts at UVA developing a Genome Enabled Electronic Medical Record (Health Heritage) under a grant from the National Cancer Institute that will have clinical decision support capabilities for clinicians and patients based on family history and related genomic data. This project begins with integration with Epic®, currently the largest electronic medical record provider in the U.S. and will then extend to other vendors and Internet providers like Microsoft.  While at UVA Dr. Knaus was awarded a Department of Defense grant to build a better model for determination of breast cancer risk for women through incorporation of a newer automated and quantitative measure of breast density. The ultimate objective of this latest work is to establish a personal risk based age for an individual woman to begin mammography screening as well as varying intervals for follow-up exams.  Dr. Knaus also assumed responsibility in September 2010 for establishing a new Biomedical Informatics (BMI) Division within the Connecticut Institute of Clinical and Translational Research (CICATS).  This new BMI Division will concentrate on creating data liquidity across various bioinformatic disciplines, information platforms, and institutions within the State of Connecticut by closely integrating Computer Sciences and Medical Informatics and assisting in the aggregation of relevant biological, imaging, clinical, and public health data.  In 2012 he was named an Emeritus Professor at UVA and, in September, he resigned his full time position to relocate to NorthShore University HealthSystem and its Research Institute to oversee the installation of testing of Health Heritage with NorthShore’s integrated health system.

Honors and Awards

  • Alpha Omega Alpha, 1971
  • Outstanding Alumnus Award, Widener University, 1981
  • Fellowship in American College of Physicians, 1982
  • Alumni Address, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program Annual Meeting, 1983
  • Distinguished Alumnus, West Virginia University, 1988
  • Henry B. Christian Memorial Award, 1990
  • Sir Jules Thorn Memorial Lecturer, Royal College of Physicians United Kingdom, 1991
  • Distinguished Research Award, The George Washington University Medical Center, 1993
  • Doctor of Science Honorary Degree, Widener University, 1994
  • First Annual Health Care Research Award, The National Institute for HealthCare Management, 1994
  • William A. Altemeir Lectureship Surgical Infection Society, 1995
  • Fellowship in Royal Australasian College of Physicians, 1999
  • Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2000
  • Distinguished Investigator Award, American College of Critical Care Medicine, 2004
  • General Electric Healthcare-AACN Pioneering Spirit Award, 2006

Professional Memberships/Affiliations/Activities

  • American College of Physicians
  • American Federation for Clinical Research
  • Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Society for Medical Decision Making
  • Society of Critical Care Medicine
  • American Thoracic Society
  • Institute of Medicine.

Scholarly Work

Publications: [Dr.Knaus’s articles have been cited over 24,000 times according to SCI]

  1. Echinococcus cysts of the liver—observations and reflections based on a medical student's summer in Turkey, 1971.  Clin Pediatr 1973; 12:128-130.
  2. Reassurances about Russian giardiasis.  N Engl J Med 1974; 201:156.
  3. Analysis of a medical internship.  J Med Educ 1975; 50:1033-1037.
  4. Implementation versus experimentation:  the federal financing question in PSRO.  Proceedings of the Boston University Conference, Quality Assurance in Hospitals.  November 21-22, 1975.  Aspen System Press, 1976.
  5. Soviet medicine: how it compares with U.S. standards.  PRISM 1975; 3:23-61.
  6. Physician fee patterns under Medicare:  a descriptive analysis.  N Engl J Med 1976; 294:1089-1093.
  7. Impact of new technology:  the CT scanner.  Med Care 1977; 15:533-542.
  8. CT:  halfway is no place to stop (editorial).  Arch Intern Med 1978; 138:531-532.
  9. Utilization and cost-effectiveness of cranial computed tomography at a uni­versity hospital.  J Comput Assist Tomogr 1978; 2:209-214.
  10. Cost-effectiveness of intensive care unit.  Current Reviews in Respiratory Therapy 1979; 2(4):27-31.
  11. The handbook of critical care medicine (book review).  Ann Intern Med 1980; 92:278-279.
  12. CT for headache:  cost/benefit for subarachnoid hemorrhage.  AJNR 1980; 1:567-572.
  13. Neurosurgical admissions to the intensive care unit:  intensive monitoring versus intensive therapy.  Neurosurgery 1981; 8:438-442.
  14. APACHE--acute physiology and chronic health evaluation:  a physiologically based classification system.  Crit Care Med 1981; 9:591-597.
  15. The range of intensive care services today.  JAMA 1981; 246:2711-2716.
  16. The use of intensive care:  a comparison of a university and community hos­pital.  Health Care Financ Rev 1981; 3(2):49-64.
  17. Intensive care units today.  In McNeil BJ, Cravalho EG (eds):  Critical Issues in Medical Technology.  Boston:  Auburn House, 1982; pp. 193-215.
  18. Severity of illness and the relationship between intensive care and surviv­al.  Am J Public Health 1982; 72:449-454.
  19. Russian physicians in an era of reform and revolution, 1856-1905 (book re­view). N Engl J Med 1982; 306:1433.
  20. Evaluating outcome from intensive care:  a preliminary multihospital com­parison.  Crit Care Med 1982; 10:491-496.
  21. A comparison of intensive care in the U.S.A. and France.  Lancet 1982; ii:642-646.
  22. Changing the cause of death (editorial).  JAMA 1983; 249:1059-1060.
  23. Identification of low-risk monitor patients within a medical-surgical inten­sive care unit.  Med Care 1983; 21:425-434.
  24. Toward quality review in intensive care:  the APACHE system.  Qual Rev Bull 1983; 9:196-204.
  25. Claude Bernard fut-il l'inventeur de l'indice de gravite?  La Presse Medi­cale 1983; 12:1755-1756.  Editorial.
  26. Statistical validation of a severity of illness measure.  Am J Public Health 1983; 73:878-884.
  27. The hidden costs of treating severely ill patients:  charges and resource consumption in an intensive care unit.  Health Care Financ Rev 1983; 5(1):81-86.
  28. The use of intensive care:  new research initiatives and their implications for national health policy.  Milbank Mem Fund Q 1983; 61:561-583.
  29. Evaluating medical-surgical intensive care.  In Parrillo JE, Ayres S (eds):  Major Issues in Critical Care Medicine.  Baltimore:  Williams and Wilkins, 1984; pp. 35-46.
  30. The value of measuring severity of disease in clinical research on acutely ill patients.  J Chronic Dis 1984; 37:455-463.
  31. Initial international use of APACHE—an acute severity of disease measure.  Med Decis Making 1984; 4(3):297-313.
  32. Valeur pronostique des pertubations du milieu interieur.  Reanimation Soins Intensifs Medecine D'Urgence 1985; 1:43-45.
  33. Relationship between acute physiologic derangement and risk of death.  J Chronic Dis 1985; 28:295-300.
  34. APACHE II:  a severity of disease classification system.  Crit Care Med 1985; 13(10):818-829.
  35. Prediction of outcome from intensive care.  In Clinics in Anaesthesiology 1985; 3(4):811-829.
  36. Hypoxemia in acute pulmonary embolism.  Chest 1985; 88(6):829-836.
  37. Prognosis in acute organ system failure.  Ann Surg 1985; 202(6):685-692.
  38. Medical care and medical technology:  the need for new understanding.  In Ginzberg E (ed):  The U.S. Health Care System:  A Look to the 1990's.  Totowa, NJ:  Rowman & Allanheld, 1985; pp. 70-88.
  39. The use and implications of do not resuscitate orders in intensive care units.  JAMA 1986; 255(3):351-356.
  40. Rationing, justice, and the American physician.  JAMA 1986; 255(9):1176-1177.  Editorial.
  41. An evaluation of outcome from intensive care in major medical centers.  Ann Intern Med 1986; 104(3):410-418.
  42. Physiologic abnormalities and outcome from acute disease.  Arch Intern Med 1986; 146:1389-1396.
  43. The case for adjusting hospital death rates for severity of illness.  Health Affairs 1986; 5(2):148-153.
  44. The science of prognosis and the world of intensive care.  Intens Crit Care Dig 1986; 5(1):1-3.
  45. The economics of intensive care units.  In Benesch K, Abramson NS, Grenvik A, Meisel A (eds):  Medicolegal Aspects of Critical Care.  Rockville, MD:  Aspen Publishers, Inc., 1986; pp. 87-107.
  46. Prediction of outcome.  MEDICINE Intl 1987; 2:1605-1608.
  47. Too sick and old for intensive care.  Br J Hosp Med 1987; 37(5):381.  Editorial.
  48. Identification of low-risk monitor admissions to medical-surgical ICUs.  Chest 1987; 92(3):423-428.
  49. Prediction of outcome from critical illness.  In Ledingham IMcA (ed):  Recent Advances in Critical Care Medicine.  Edinburgh:  Churchill Livingstone, 1988.
  50. Patient selection for intensive care:  a comparison of New Zealand and U.S. hospitals.  Crit Care Med 1988; 16:318-326.
  51. Outcome prediction in adult intensive care.  In Shoemaker WC, et al (eds):  Society of Critical Care Medicine Textbook of Critical Care 1988; 162:1447-1465.
  52. The science of prediction and its implications for quality assessment in intensive care. In Perspective on Quality In American Health Care (E.F.X. Hughes, ED.) McGraw-Hill, Washington, D. C. 1988; 85-104.
  53. The Science of prediction and its implication for the clinician today.  Theor Surg 1988; 3:93-101.
  54. Prognosis with mechanical ventilation: The influence of disease severity of disease, age, and chronic health status on survival from acute illness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 140:S8-S13.
  55. Interhospital comparisons of patient outcome from intensive care: The importance of lead-time bias.  Crit Care Med 1989; 17(5):418-422.
  56. Multi-system organ failure (MSOF): Outcome and clinical implications. In ASA Refresher Course Lecturer: Vol 17 1989; 7:83-94.
  57. Predicting the need for intensive care (editorial).  J Crit Care 1989; 4(2):75-77.
  58. Criteria for Admission to Intensive Care Units. In Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy: Rationing of medical care for the critically ill. Strosberg MA, Fein IA, Carroll JD (eds.). The Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C. 1986; 44-51.
  59. Predicting and Evaluating Patient Outcome from Intensive Care: A Guide to APACHE, MPM, SAPS, PRISM, and Other Prognostic Scoring Systems.  J of Intensive Care Med 1990; 5:33-52.
  60. Multiple Systems Organ Failure: Epidemiology and Prognosis. Critical Care Clinics 1989; 5(2):221-232.
  61. Prognostic Factors in the Intensive Care Unit with Special Emphasis on Acute Respiratory Failure in Update on ARDS. Zapol ed., M. Dekkar, New York 1990; 6:1-14.
  62. APACHE—A Prognostic Scoring Systems and In Support of Prognostic Scoring System in Scoring Systems in the ICU  Vol 3, No. 4. Farmer eds., Lippincott, Philadelphia 1989; 5:562-577.
  63. The APACHE III Study Design: Analytic Plan for Evaluation of Severity and Outcome. Zimmerman JE (ed.)  Crit Care Med (Supplement) 1989; 17(12):S169-S221.
  64. The Changing Challenges of Critical Care (editorial). Intensive Care Med 1989; 15:415-416.
  65. Outcome Prediction in Critical Care Medicine: The Role of Probability Estimates in Clinical Decision Making and Resourse Allocation. In Critical Care: State of the Art, Volume 11 1990; 16:347-365.
  66. Prognosis for Multiple Organ System Failure: The Accurary of Objective Estimates for Survival. Med Decis Making 1990; 10:155-162.
  67. Do Objective Estimates for Survival Influence Decisions to Withhold or Withdraw Treatment? Med Decis Making 1990; 10:163-171.
  68. Application of Prognostic Scoring in Adult Intensive Care. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 1990; 3:241-244.
  69. Proposed Definitions for Diagnosis, Severity Scoring, Stratification, and Outcome for Trials on Intraabdominal Infection. World J. Surg. 1990; 14:148-158.
  70. Interpretation of Hospital Mortality Rates: The Current State of the Art. Mayo Clinic Proceedings (editorial) 1990; 65:1627-1629.
  71. Prognostic Factors in the Intensive Care Unit with Special Emphasis on Acute Respiratory Failure. In Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Zapol WM, Lemaire F (eds.), M. Dekker, Inc., New York 1991; 6:91-103.
  72. Predicting Outcome in Critical Care: The Current Status of the APACHE Prognostic Scoring System. Can J. Anaesth 1991; 38:374-383.
  73. APACHE III Study: A Summary. Intensive Care World 1991; 8(1):35-38.
  74. Predicting Outcome in Critical Care: The Current Status of the APACHE Prognostic Scoring System. Can J. Anaesth 1991; 38:374-383.
  75. Short-Term Mortality Predictions for Critically Ill Hospitalized Adults: Science and Ethics. Science 1991; 254:389-394.
  76. Severity Scoring and Prediction of Patient Outcome. In Care of the Critically Ill Patient, 2nd Edition. Jack Tinker and Warren M. Zapol (eds), Springer-Verlag 1991; 76:1275-1287.
  77. The APACHE III Prognostic System: Risk Prediction of Hospital Mortality for Critically Ill Hospitalized Adults. Chest 1991; 100:1619-1636.
  78. The Role of Outcome Prediction in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care: Implications for Research and Patient Care. J Drug Dev. 1991; 4(Suppl 3):10-18.
  79. Reliability of a Measure of Severity of Illness:  Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. J. Clin Epidemol. 1992; 45:93-101.
  80. Evaluation of Definitions for Sepsis. Chest 1992; 101:1656-1662.
  81. Continuously Improving Patient Care: Practical Lessons and an Assessment Tool from the National ICU Study. Quality Rev Bull 1992; 18:150-155.
  82. ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference. Definitions for Sepsis and Organ Failure and Guidelines for the Use of Innovative Therapies in Sepsis. Chest 1992; 101:1644-1655.
  83. An Initial Comparison of Intensive Care in Japan and the United States. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:1207-1215.
  84. Variations in hospital mortality and length of stay from intensive care Ann Intern Med 1993; 118:753-61.
  85. Glasgow coma scale score in the evaluation of outcome in the intensive care unit: Findings from the APACHE III study. Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1459-1465.
  86. Outcome Prediction in Intensive Care. In Intensive Care Rounds.  The Medicine Group (Education) Ltd., eds, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK, 1993; 1-20.
  87. Commentary on: APACHE II - A prognostic scoring system for seriously ill hospital patients. In Current Contents. Citation Classics . Institute for Scientific Information, eds, Phila, PA., 1993; 21:10.
  88. The value and cost of teaching hospitals: A comparison of intensive care units. Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1432-1442.
  89. Improving ICU: observations based on organizational case studies in nine intensive care units. Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1443-1451.
  90. The clinical evaluation of new drugs for sepsis: A prospective study design based on survival analysis. JAMA 1993; 270:1233-1241.
  91. Do-not-resuscitate orders in intensive care units: Current practices and recent changes. JAMA 1993; 270:2213-2217.
  92. Organ system dyfunction and risk prediction [Editorial]. Intensive Care Med 1993; 19:127-128.
  93. Predicting outcome from mechanical ventilation [Editorial]. West. J Med. 1993; 700-702.
  94. Intensive care at two teaching hospitals: An organizational case study. Am J Crit Care 1994; 3:129-183.
  95. The case for using objective scoring systems to predict intensive care unit outcome. In Critical Care Clinics 1994; 10(1):73-89.
  96. The value of commerical funding in health services research: The case of the APACHE III methodology. Health Services Research 1994; 28(6):673-678.
  97. What determines prognosis in sepsis? Evidence for a comprehensive individual patient risk assessment approach to the design and analysis of clinical trials. In Sepsis: Current Perspectives in Pathophysiology and Therapy. Reinhard K, Eyrich K, Sprung C. (eds); Springer-Verlag 1994; I.(18):23-37.
  98. What determines prognosis in sepsis? Evidence for a comprehensive individual patient risk assessment approach to the design and analysis of clinical trials. Theor Surg 1994; 9:20-27.
  99. Evaluation of Definitions of Sepsis [communications to the editor]. Chest 1994; 105:970-971.
  100. The performance of intensive care units: Does good management make a difference? Med Care 1994; 32:508-525. (Awarded the 1st Annual Health Care Research Award from the National Institute for HealthCare Management.)
  101. Why measure severity? Réanimation Urgences 1994; 3:159-163.
  102. Do formal advance directives affect resuscitation decisions and the use of resources for seriously ill patients. J Clin Ethics 1994; 5:23-30.
  103. Comment on: Why Severity Models should be used with caution. Crit Care Clin 1994; 10:93-110.
  104. Evaluation of Definitions for Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150:311-317.
  105. Assessing Patient Outcomes as an Indicator of Quality of Care. In: Pathways in Critical Care Clinical Communications, Inc. Greenwich, CT, 1994; 1:5-9.
  106. Daily Prognostic Estimates for Critically Ill Adults in Intensive Care Units: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter, Inception Cohort Analysis. Crit Care Med 1994; 22:1359-1372.
  107. Improving Intensive Care Unit Discharge Decisions: Supplementing Physician Judgment with predictions of Next Day risk for Life Support. Crit Care Med 1994; 22:1373-1384.
  108. Measuring the Glasgow Coma Scale in the Intensive Care Unit: Potentials and Pitfalls [editorial]. Intensive Care World 1994; 11:102-103.
  109. Prognosis-Based Futility Guidelines: Does Anyone Win? J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42:1202-1207.
  110. The SUPPORT prognostic model: Objective estimates of survival for seriously ill hospitalized adults. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:191-203.
  111. Predicting Future Functional Status for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Adults: The SUPPORT Prognostic Model. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122:342-350.
  112. Quality assessment and assurance in the intensive care unit. In: The High Risk Patient: Management of the Critically Ill. Sivak ED, Higgins TL, Seiver A. (eds). Williams & Wilkins 1995; 10:1576-1586.
  113. African-American and White intensive care units admissions:  Is there a difference in therapy and outcome? Crit Care Med 1995; 23:626-636.
  114. Preferences for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Physician-Patient Agreement and Hospital Resource Use. J Gen Intern Med 1995; 10:179-186.
  115. Risk assessment in recent clinical trials in sepsis/SIRS: Lessons learned and future directions. J Endotoxin Res 1995; 2:169-175.
  116. The use of APACHE III to evaluate ICU length of stay, resource use, and mortality after coronary artery by-pass surgery. J Cardiovasc  Surg 1995; 36:1-11.
  117. The expanding role of ICU medical directors:  From patient management to unit management. Quality of Management in Health Care 1995; 3(4):31-36.
  118. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients (SUPPORT). JAMA 1995; 247:1591-1598.
  119. Use of predicted  risk of mortality to evaluate the efficacy of anticytokine therapy in sepsis.  Crit Care Med. 1996; 24:46-56.
  120. Planning patient services for intermediate care units:insights based on care for iintensive care unit low risk monitor admissions. Crit. Care Medicine. 1996 24(10):1626-32.
  121. International comparisons of intensive care:meeting the challenges of different worlds of intensive care. Intensive Care Medicine. 1996. 22(2):156-7.
  122. The importance of technology for achieving superior outcomes from intensive care. Brazil APACHE III Study Group. Intensive Care Medicine. 1996. 22(7):664-9.
  123. Application of the APACHE III prognostic system in Brazilian intensive care units: a prospective multicenter study. Intensive Care Medicine. 1996 22(6):564-70.
  124. The ongoing mystery of ARDS. Intensive Care Medicine. 1996. 22(6)517-8.
  125. Outcome of mechanical ventilation for adults with hematologic malignancy. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 1996. 44(5):254-60.
  126. Does selective decontamination of the digestive tract reduce mortality for severely ill patients? 1996. Crit Care Med. 24(5) 753-5.
  127. Factors associated with do-not –resuscitate orders: patients’ preferences, prognoses, and physicians’ judgments. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1996. 125(4):284-93.
  128. Severity stratification and outcome prediction for multisystem organ failure and dysfunction. World Journal of Surgery.1996. 20(4):401-5.
  129. Use of predicted risk of mortality to evaluate the efficacy of anticytokine therapy in sepsis. The rhIL-1ra Phase II Sepsis Syndrome Study Group. 1996 Crit. Care Med. 1996 24(1):46-56.
  130. Intensive care unit admissions with cirrhosis: Risk-stratifying patient groups and predicting individual survival. Hepatology 1996; 23:1993-1401.
  131. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. JAMA 1996; 276:889-897.
  132. A comparison of risks and outcomes for patients with organ system failure: 1982-1990. Crit Care Med. 1996; 24:1633-1641.
  133. The use of severity scoring in clinical investigations of seriously ill patients. In Recent  Advances in Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 4. Evans TW, Hinds CJ, eds . Churchill Livingstone 1996;  9:191-212.
  134. Variations in the use of do-not-resuscitate orders in ICUS. Findings from a national study. Chest 1996; 110:1332-9.
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