Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2014 Aug 26
Authors: Sharpe SM,
The optimal management of small (≤2 cm) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) remains controversial. We evaluated these tumors in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine if resection provides a survival advantage over observation.
The NCDB was queried to identify patients with nonmetastatic PNETs ≤2 cm treated between 1998 and 2006. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, stratified by grade and treatment type, evaluated the difference in 5-year overall survival (OS) between patients who underwent resection and observation. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the importance of resection in OS.
Three hundred eighty patients met inclusion criteria. Eighty-one percent underwent resection; 19 % were observed. Five-year OS was 82.2 % for patients who underwent surgery and 34.3 % for those who were observed (p < 0.0001). When controlling for age, comorbidities, income, facility type, tumor size and location, grade, margin status, nodal status, surgical management, and nonsurgical therapy in the Cox model, observation [hazard ratio (HR) 2.80], poorly differentiated histology (HR 3.79), lymph node positivity (HR 2.01), and nonsurgical therapies (HR 2.23) were independently associated with an increase in risk of mortality (p < 0.01).
Patients with localized PNETs ≤2 cm had an overall survival advantage with resection compared to observation, independent of age, comorbidities, tumor grade, and treatment with nonsurgical therapies.
PMID: 25155459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of surgical oncology 2014 Sep
Authors: Baker MS,
The Clavien-Dindo system (CD) does not change the grade assigned a complication when multiple readmissions or interventions are required to manage a complication. We apply a modification of CD accounting for readmissions and interventions to pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).
PDs done between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed. CD grade IIIa complications requiring more than one intervention and II and IIIa complications requiring significantly prolonged lengths of stay including all 90-day readmissions were classified severe-adverse-postoperative-outcomes (SAPO). CD IIIb, IV, and V complications were also classified SAPOs. All other complications were considered minor-adverse-postoperative-outcomes (MAPO).
Four-hundred forty three of 490 PD patients (90.4%) had either no complication or a complication of low to moderate CD grade (I, II, IIIa). When reclassified by the new metric, 92 patient-outcomes (19%) were upgraded from CD II or IIIa to SAPO. One-hundred thirty nine patients (28.4%) had a SAPO. Multivariable regression identified age >75 years, pylorus preservation and operative blood loss >1,500 ml as predictors of SAPO. Age was not associated with poor outcome using the unmodified CD system.
Established systems may under-grade the severity of some complications following PD. We define a procedure-specific modification of CD accounting for readmissions and multiple interventions. Using this modification, advanced age, pylorus preservation, and significant blood loss are associated with poor outcome.
PMID: 24861871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Surgical endoscopy 2014 May 2
Authors: Brown CS,
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most predictive risk factor for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a malignancy with the fastest increasing incidence in the US. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in exposures, demographics, and comorbidities between regressing and non-regressing patients.
We retrospectively collected and analyzed data from a cohort of BE patients participating in a single-center study comprised of all patients diagnosed with BE over a 10-year period. We collected information from the patient's electronic medical records regarding demographic data, endoscopic findings, histological findings, exposures, and history of antireflux surgery.
This study included 1,342 BE patients, 505 (37.6 %) of which experienced regression. The regressed group was 52.3 % male, while the non-regressing group was 68.3 % male (p < 0.001). Mean age was 65.2 ± 12.8 and 62.0 ± 13.1 years for non-regressing and regressing patients, respectively (p < 0.001). No difference was seen in BMI between regressing and non-regressing groups (27.5 ± 5.7 vs. 27.7 ± 5.4, p = 0.52). No difference was seen between groups with respect to PPI use (93.5 % non-regressing vs. 94.1 % regressed patients, p = 0.70), but regressed patients were more likely to take vitamin D than non-regressing patients (34.1 vs. 42.1 %, p = 0.003). Regressed patients had an average segment length of 1.48 cm (±1.58 cm), in contrast to those not regressing (3.58 ± 3.09 cm (p < 0.001)). Interestingly, one patient in the regression group progressed to dysplasia, while 101 of the non-regressing patients progressed to dysplasia/EAC, a result found to be independent of segment length on multivariate analysis (p < 0.001).
Currently, several studies have shown risk factors that can predict progression of non-dysplastic BE, but few investigate predictors for regression. Our study reports several factors that can be used to predict patients who will regress from BE and those who likely will not, tools that will be useful in tailoring therapeutic and surveillance strategies.
PMID: 24789137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Annals of surgical oncology 2014 May
Authors: In H,
Cancer recurrence is a critically important outcome to patients and providers. However, no publicly available cancer registry data contain recurrence information. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) collects recurrence data; however, this information is not provided to researchers because of completeness and accuracy concerns. Our objective was to examine completeness of cancer recurrence information in the NCDB.
Stage I-III thyroid/colon/melanoma/pancreas/breast cancers diagnosed in 2002-2005 were identified. Recurrence status, recurrence type, and recurrence date were evaluated for data completeness. Patient, tumor, and hospital factors were examined using generalized linear mixed models. Pseudo-R (2) statistics estimated the relative contribution of patient and hospital factors.
Of 702,144 patients with thyroid/colon/melanoma/pancreas/breast cancers treated in 1405 hospitals, recurrence information was incomplete in 21.5/24.0/20.2/34.8/18.2 % of patients, respectively. On average, hospitals had incomplete recurrence information on 56.7-66.7 % of their patients. Patients with incomplete information had more comorbidities, a higher cancer stage, non-private insurance, and lived farther from the hospital. Hospitals with the poorest collection were larger tertiary hospitals serving higher-income patients. However, these patients and hospital factors explained less than 3 %, while unexplained hospital variation accounted for the largest part of the observed variation (%ΔR (2) = 84 %).
The majority of hospitals report incomplete recurrence information for more than half of their patients. The presence of incomplete recurrence information was largely dependent on undefined hospital factors, rather than patient or tumor characteristics. Attempts to improve cancer recurrence information should focus on hospital operational and process factors surrounding how the hospital tumor registries collect recurrence data.
PMID: 24504926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Annals of surgery 2013 Dec 26
Authors: Merkow RP,
To assess the impact of postoperative complications on the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.
Randomized trials have demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved long-term survival. However, pancreatic surgery is associated with significant morbidity and the degree to which complications limit subsequent treatment options is unknown.
Patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the National Cancer Data Base who underwent pancreatic resection for cancer were linked (2006-2009). The associations between complications and adjuvant chemotherapy use or treatment delay (≥70 days from surgery) were assessed using multivariable regression methods.
From 149 hospitals, 2047 patients underwent resection for stage I-III pancreatic adenocarcinoma of which 23.2% had at least 1 serious complication. Overall adjuvant chemotherapy receipt was 57.7%: 61.8% among patients not experiencing any complication and 43.6% among those who had a serious complication. Serious complications increased the likelihood of not receiving adjuvant therapy over twofold [odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73-2.80]. Specific complications associated with adjuvant chemotherapy omission were reintubation (OR = 7.79, 95% CI: 3.59-16.87), prolonged ventilation (OR = 5.92, 95% CI: 3.23-10.86), pneumonia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.63-4.90), sepsis/shock (OR = 2.76, 95% CI: 2.02-3.76), organ space/deep surgical site infection (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13), venous thromboembolism (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.08-3.43), and urinary tract infection (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02-2.54). Serious complications also doubled the likelihood of delaying adjuvant treatment administration (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.42-3.05). Sensitivity analysis in a younger, healthier patient cohort demonstrated similar associations.
Postoperative complications are common following pancreatic surgery and are associated with adjuvant chemotherapy omission and treatment delays.
PMID: 24374509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Surgery 2013 Oct
Authors: Cherenfant J,
The biologic potential of nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is highly variable and difficult to predict before resection. This study was conducted to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with malignant behavior and death in patients diagnosed with PNETs.
We used International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes to identify patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PNETs from 1998 to 2011 in the databases of 4 institutions. Functioning PNETs were excluded. Multivariate regression Cox proportional models were constructed to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with distant metastasis and survival.
The study included 128 patients-57 females and 71 males. The age (mean ± standard deviation) was 55 ± 14 years. The body mass index was 28 ± 5 kg/m(2). Eighty-nine (70%) patients presented with symptoms, and 39 (30%) had tumors discovered incidentally. The tumor size was 3.3 ± 2 cm with 56 (44%) of the tumors measuring ≤2 cm. Seventy-three (57%) patients had grade 1 histology tumors, 37 (29%) had grade 2, and 18 (14%) had grade 3. Peripancreatic lymph node involvement was present in 31 patients (24%), absent in 75 (59%), and unknown in 22 (17%). Distant metastasis occurred in 18 patients (14%). There were 12 deaths, including 1 perioperative, 8 disease related, and 3 of unknown cause. With a median follow-up of 33 months, the overall 5-year survival was 75%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified age >55 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-20.58), grade 3 histology (HR, 6.08; 95% CI, 1.32-30.2), and distant metastasis (HR, 8.79; 95% CI, 2.67-28.9) as risk factors associated with death (P < .05). Gender, race, body mass index, clinical symptoms, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and tumor size were not related to metastasis or survival (P > .05). Three patients with tumors ≤2 cm developed distant metastasis resulting in 2 disease-related deaths.
Age >55 years, grade 3 histology, and distant metastasis predict a greater risk of death from nonfunctioning PNETs. Resection or short-term surveillance should be considered regardless of tumor size.
PMID: 24074416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
American journal of clinical oncology 2013 Feb 20
Authors: Hayman AV,
BACKGROUND:: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is the most common serum biomarker used in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC). Elevated preoperative levels have been shown to correlate with more advanced stage, greater risk of unresectability, and overall worse survival. The prognostic value of CA 19-9 nonproduction, which is present in an estimated 5% to 15% of the population, is unclear. We sought to determine whether CA 19-9 nonproduction was associated with worse survival after PC resection. METHODS:: We retrospectively reviewed our institution's prospective pancreatic database for all PC patients with documented preoperative CA 19-9 values who underwent resection with curative intent from March 1992 to August 2009. After excluding 10 perioperative deaths, 200 patients remained for analysis. RESULTS:: Mean and median follow-up was 23.3 and 16.1 months, respectively. Median survival in months for patients with preoperative CA 19-9 levels in U/mL by category was as follows: normal (5.1 to 36.9): 32, nonproduction (≤5): 21, mildly elevated (37 to 99.9): 35, highly elevated (100+): 16. Factors significantly associated with worse overall survival were: nonwhite race, nonproduction or highly elevated preoperative CA 19-9 (≥100 U/mL), estimated blood loss ≥1 L, tumor size (≥2 cm), lymph node-positivity, and advanced (3/4) histologic grade. On multivariate analysis, only CA 19-9 nonproduction or highly elevated production, estimated blood loss ≥1 L, advanced histologic grade, and node positivity remained significant in the final model. CONCLUSIONS:: CA 19-9 nonproduction is not associated with improved survival after pancreatic cancer resection, as has previously been asserted, when compared with patients with normal and elevated levels.
PMID: 23428954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2013 Feb
Authors: Baker MS,
Established systems for grading postoperative complications do not change the assigned grade when multiple interventions or readmissions are required to manage a complication. Studies using these systems may misrepresent outcomes for the surgical procedures being evaluated. We define a quality outcome for distal pancreatectomy (DP) and use this metric to compare laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP).
Records for patients undergoing DP between January 2006 and December 2009 were reviewed. Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb, IV, and V complications were classified as severe adverse--poor quality--postoperative outcomes (SAPOs). II and IIIa complications requiring either significantly prolonged overall lengths of stay including readmissions within 90 days or more than one invasive intervention were also classified as SAPOs.
By Clavien-Dindo system alone, 91 % of DP patients had either no complication or a low/moderate grade (I, II, IIIa) complication. Using our reclassification, however, 25 % had a SAPO. Patients undergoing LDP demonstrated a Clavien-Dindo complication profile identical to that for SDP but demonstrated significantly shorter overall lengths of stay, were less likely to require perioperative transfusion, and less likely to have a SAPO.
Established systems undergrade the severity of some complications following DP. Using a procedure-specific metric for quality, we demonstrate that LDP affords a higher quality postoperative outcome than ODP.
PMID: 23225109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus / I.S.D.E 2013 Jul
Authors: Yetasook AK,
Several complications after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up are associated with ischemia within the gastric conduit. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of laparoscopic ischemic preconditioning of the stomach prior to thoracotomy, esophagectomy, and gastric pull-up with an intrathoracic anastomosis. A retrospective review of 24 consecutive patients between October 2008 and July 2011 with esophageal adenocarcinoma (stage I-III) undergoing laparoscopic gastric ischemic conditioning prior to esophagectomy was conducted. Conditioning included laparoscopic ligation of the left and short gastric arteries, celiac node dissection, and jejunostomy tube placement. Formal resection and reconstruction was then performed 4-10 days later. Of the 24 patients, 88% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent successful laparoscopic ischemic conditioning and subsequent esophagectomy. Total mean number of lymph nodes harvested was 21.8 (±8.0), and a mean of 5.3 (±2.4) celiac lymph nodes identified. There were no conversions to an open procedure. Length of stay was 3.8 (±4.8) days with a median length of stay of 2 (1-24) days. Three patients experienced anastomotic leak, six patients experience delayed gastric emptying, and two patients developed anastomotic stricture. There were no surgical site infections. R0 resection was achieved in all patients who underwent laparoscopic ischemic conditioning followed by esophagectomy. Laparoscopic ischemic conditioning of the gastric conduit has been shown to be feasible and safe.
PMID: 22816598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of surgical oncology 2012 Sep 1
Authors: Marsh Rde W,
Biliary tract cancers (gallbladder cancer, intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and selected periampullary cancers) accounted for 12,760 new cases of cancer in the USA in 2010. These tumors have a dismal prognosis with most patients presenting with advanced disease. Early, accurate diagnosis is essential, both for potential cure where possible and for optimal palliative therapy in all others. This review examines the currently available and emerging technologies for diagnosis and treatment of this group of diseases.
PMID: 22488652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]