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Cystoscopy (say "sis-TAW-skuh-pee") is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inside
bladder and urethra. It's done using a thin, lighted tube called a
The doctor inserts this tube into your urethra and on into the
bladder. Your doctor can see areas of your bladder and urethra that usually don't show up well on X-rays.
Your doctor can also insert tiny surgical tools through the tube to take samples of tissue (biopsy) or
samples of urine.
bladder stones and some small growths can also be taken out this way. So the test may help keep you from having to go back for surgery.
be done to:
Tell your doctor if you:
The anesthesia used for this test may be local, spinal, or general. So talk to your doctor about which method is best for you. Ask if you should plan on staying
overnight in the hospital. If you won't be staying in the hospital, plan to have someone drive you home after the test.
Follow the instructions exactly
about when to stop eating and drinking, or your surgery may be canceled. If
your doctor told you to take your medicines on the day of surgery,
use only a sip of water.
Empty your bladder just before the test. You
may get medicine to prevent a urinary tract infection that could be caused
by the test.
You will be asked to sign a consent form that says you understand the risks of the test and agree to have it done.
Talk to your doctor about any concerns you have regarding the need for the
test, its risks, how it will be done, or what the results may mean. To help you
understand the importance of this test, fill out the
medical test information form(What is a PDF document?).
Cystoscopy is done by a
urologist, with one or more assistants. The test is
done in a hospital or the doctor's office.
You'll need to take off all or most of your clothes. You'll have a cloth or paper covering to use during the test.
hour before the test, you may get a
sedative to help you relax. An intravenous (IV) needle may be placed in your arm to give
you other medicines and fluids. You will lie on your back on a table
with your knees bent, legs apart. Your feet or thighs may be placed in stirrups. Your genital area is cleaned with an antiseptic solution. Your
belly and thighs are covered with sterile cloths.
For this test, you will have one of three kinds of anesthesia.
After the anesthetic takes effect, the cystoscope
tube is inserted into your urethra and slowly moved into your bladder. If your
urethra has a spot that is too narrow, other smaller
tools are inserted first. They will gradually make it large enough for the tube.
Next, the doctor injects either sterile water or
salt water (saline) to help make your bladder larger and to create
a clear view. The doctor may also inject medicine to reduce
chances of infection.
The doctor can also insert tiny tools through the tube to
collect tissue samples for biopsy. The tissue samples are sent to the
lab to be checked.
The tube is usually in your bladder
for only 2 to 10 minutes. But if other X-ray tests are done at the same time, the entire test may take up to 45 minutes or
If a local
anesthetic is used, you may be able to get up right after the test. If a
general anesthetic is used, you will stay in the recovery room until you are
awake and able to walk. (This usually takes an hour or less.) You can eat and drink as soon
as you are fully awake and can swallow without choking. If a spinal anesthetic
was used, you will stay in the recovery room until feeling and movement below
your chest returns. (This usually takes about an hour.)
If you are put to sleep with a general
anesthetic, you won't feel anything during the test. After the
anesthetic wears off, your muscles may feel tired and achy. The medicine gives some people an upset stomach.
If a local
anesthetic is used, you may feel a burning sensation or an urge to urinate when
the cystoscope tube is inserted and removed. When sterile water or saline is put in your bladder, you may feel a cool sensation, an uncomfortable
fullness, and an urgent need to urinate. Try to relax during the test by taking
slow, deep breaths. Also, if the test takes a long time, lying on the table can become
tiring and uncomfortable.
If a spinal anesthetic is used, you may
find it uncomfortable to lie curled up on your side while the anesthetic is
injected. You will probably feel a brief sting when the medicine
is injected. The day after the test, you may feel tired and have a slight backache.
Most people report that this test is not
nearly as uncomfortable as they thought it would be.
Cystoscopy is generally a very safe test. General anesthesia has some
risks. The test doesn't affect sexual function.
The most common side effect is a short-term
swelling of the urethra. This can make it hard to urinate. A catheter
inserted in your bladder can help drain the urine until the swelling goes away.
Bleeding sometimes occurs, but it usually stops on its own.
may have a mild infection in the urinary tract after the test. This can
usually be prevented or treated by taking medicine before and after the test.
In rare cases, the infection can spread through the body. And in very rare
cases, usually with seriously ill people, the infection can be
Another rare complication is a puncture of the
urethra or bladder by one of the tools. This puncture needs surgery to
After the test, you may need to
urinate often. You may have some burning during and after urination for a day or
two. It may help to drink lots of fluids. This also helps prevent a urinary
Slightly pink urine is common for
several days after the test, especially if a biopsy was performed. But call
your doctor right away if:
Cystoscopy is a test that allows the
doctor to look at the inside of the
bladder and the
urethra. Your doctor may be able to talk to you about
some of the results right after the test. The results of a
biopsy usually take several days.
The urethra, bladder, and
ureters are normal.
There are no
polyps or other abnormal tissues, swelling, bleeding,
narrow areas (strictures), or structural problems.
There is swelling or narrowing of the urethra because of
previous infections or an enlarged
There are bladder tumors (which may or may not be cancerous), polyps,
urinary stones, or inflammation of the bladder walls.
Problems in the structure of the
urinary tract present since birth (congenital) are
In a woman, pelvic organ prolapse is present.
A cystoscopy is usually not done
if you have an infection of the bladder, prostate gland, or urethra.
X-ray tests, such as retrograde pyelography or
cystourethrography, may also be done during cystoscopy.
To learn more, see:
Other Works Consulted
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ (2008). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 5th ed. St. Louis:
Fischbach FT, Dunning MB III, eds. (2009).
Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, 8th ed.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (2010). Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerAvery L. Seifert, MD - Urology
Current as ofSeptember 9, 2014
Current as of:
September 9, 2014
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
& Avery L. Seifert, MD - Urology
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.
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