Neurobiology of aging 2014 Jan
Authors: Heckman MG, Elbaz A, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Serie DJ, Aasly JO, Annesi G, Auburger G, Bacon JA, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Bozi M, Brighina L, Chartier-Harlin MC, Dardiotis E, Destée A, Ferrarese C, Ferraris A, Fiske B, Gispert S, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Hattori N, Ioannidis JP, Jasinska-Myga B, Jeon BS, Kim YJ, Klein C, Kruger R, Kyratzi E, Lin CH, Lohmann K, Loriot MA, Lynch T, Mellick GD, Mutez E, Opala G, Park SS, Petrucci S, Quattrone A, Sharma M, Silburn PA, Sohn YH, Stefanis L, Tadic V, Tomiyama H, Uitti RJ, Valente EM, Vassilatis DK, Vilariño-Güell C, White LR, Wirdefeldt K, Wszolek ZK, Wu RM, Xiromerisiou G, Maraganore DM, Farrer MJ, Ross OA, Genetic Epidemiology Of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium,
The best validated susceptibility variants for Parkinson's disease are located in the α-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) genes. Recently, a protective p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K haplotype in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene was identified, with p.R1398H appearing to be the most likely functional variant. To date, the consistency of the protective effect of LRRK2 p.R1398H across MAPT and SNCA variant genotypes has not been assessed. To address this, we examined 4 SNCA variants (rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074, and rs2583988), the MAPT H1-haplotype-defining variant rs1052553, and LRRK2 p.R1398H (rs7133914) in Caucasian (n = 10,322) and Asian (n = 2289) series. There was no evidence of an interaction of LRRK2 p.R1398H with MAPT or SNCA variants (all p ≥ 0.10); the protective effect of p.R1398H was observed at similar magnitude across MAPT and SNCA genotypes, and the risk effects of MAPT and SNCA variants were observed consistently for LRRK2 p.R1398H genotypes. Our results indicate that the association of LRRK2 p.R1398H with Parkinson's disease is independent of SNCA and MAPT variants, and vice versa, in Caucasian and Asian populations.
PMID: 23962496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society 2013 Oct
Authors: Heckman MG, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Aasly JO, Abahuni N, Annesi G, Bacon JA, Bardien S, Bozi M, Brice A, Brighina L, Carr J, Chartier-Harlin MC, Dardiotis E, Dickson DW, Diehl NN, Elbaz A, Ferrarese C, Fiske B, Gibson JM, Gibson R, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Hattori N, Ioannidis JP, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Jasinska-Myga B, Jeon BS, Kim YJ, Klein C, Kruger R, Kyratzi E, Lesage S, Lin CH, Lynch T, Maraganore DM, Mellick GD, Mutez E, Nilsson C, Opala G, Park SS, Petrucci S, Puschmann A, Quattrone A, Sharma M, Silburn PA, Sohn YH, Stefanis L, Tadic V, Theuns J, Tomiyama H, Uitti RJ, Valente EM, Van Broeckhoven C, van de Loo S, Vassilatis DK, Vilariño-Güell C, White LR, Wirdefeldt K, Wszolek ZK, Wu RM, Hentati F, Farrer MJ, Ross OA, Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium,
Variants within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 variation related to disease susceptibility displays many features that reflect the nature of complex, late-onset sporadic disorders like Parkinson's disease.
The Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium recently performed the largest genetic association study for variants in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene across 23 different sites in 15 countries.
Herein, we detail the allele frequencies for the novel risk factors (p.A419V and p.M1646T) and the protective haplotype (p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K) nominated in the original publication. Simple population allele frequencies not only can provide insight into the clinical relevance of specific variants but also can help genetically define patient groups.
Establishing individual patient-based genomic susceptibility profiles that incorporate both risk factors and protective factors will determine future diagnostic and treatment strategies. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
PMID: 23913756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Parkinsonism & related disorders 2013 Jun
Authors: Chung SJ, Armasu SM, Anderson KJ, Biernacka JM, Lesnick TG, Rider DN, Cunningham JM, Ahlskog JE, Frigerio R, Maraganore DM,
Prior studies causally linked mutations in SNCA, MAPT, and LRRK2 genes with familial Parkinsonism. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those three genes with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility worldwide. Here we investigated the interactions between SNPs in those three susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pesticides application, tobacco smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol drinking) also associated with PD susceptibility.
Pairwise interactions between environmental exposures and 18 variants (16 SNPs and two variable number tandem repeats, or "VNTRs") in SNCA, MAPT and LRRK2, were investigated using data from 1098 PD cases from the upper Midwest, USA and 1098 matched controls. Environmental exposures were assessed using a validated telephone interview script.
Five pairwise interactions had uncorrected P-values < 0.05. These included pairings of pesticides × SNCA rs3775423 or MAPT rs4792891, coffee drinking × MAPT H1/H2 haplotype or MAPT rs16940806, and alcohol drinking × MAPT rs2435211. None of these interactions remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Secondary analyses in strata defined by type of control (sibling or unrelated), sex, or age at onset of the case also did not identify significant interactions after Bonferroni correction.
This study documented limited pairwise interactions between established genetic and environmental risk factors for PD; however, the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing.
PMID: 23507417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of medical genetics 2012 Nov
Authors: Sharma M, Ioannidis JP, Aasly JO, Annesi G, Brice A, Bertram L, Bozi M, Barcikowska M, Crosiers D, Clarke CE, Facheris MF, Farrer M, Garraux G, Gispert S, Auburger G, Vilariño-Güell C, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Hicks AA, Hattori N, Jeon BS, Jamrozik Z, Krygowska-Wajs A, Lesage S, Lill CM, Lin JJ, Lynch T, Lichtner P, Lang AE, Libioulle C, Murata M, Mok V, Jasinska-Myga B, Mellick GD, Morrison KE, Meitnger T, Zimprich A, Opala G, Pramstaller PP, Pichler I, Park SS, Quattrone A, Rogaeva E, Ross OA, Stefanis L, Stockton JD, Satake W, Silburn PA, Strom TM, Theuns J, Tan EK, Toda T, Tomiyama H, Uitti RJ, Van Broeckhoven C, Wirdefeldt K, Wszolek Z, Xiromerisiou G, Yomono HS, Yueh KC, Zhao Y, Gasser T, Maraganore D, Krüger R, GEOPD consortium,
Two recent studies identified a mutation (p.Asp620Asn) in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene as a cause for an autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease . Although additional missense variants were described, their pathogenic role yet remains inconclusive.
We performed the largest multi-center study to ascertain the frequency and pathogenicity of the reported vacuolar protein sorting 35 gene variants in more than 15,000 individuals worldwide. p.Asp620Asn was detected in 5 familial and 2 sporadic PD cases and not in healthy controls, p.Leu774Met in 6 cases and 1 control, p.Gly51Ser in 3 cases and 2 controls. Overall analyses did not reveal any significant increased risk for p.Leu774Met and p.Gly51Ser in our cohort.
Our study apart from identifying the p.Asp620Asn variant in familial cases also identified it in idiopathic Parkinson disease cases, and thus provides genetic evidence for a role of p.Asp620Asn in Parkinson disease in different populations worldwide.
PMID: 23125461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Neurology 2012 Aug 14
Authors: Sharma M, Ioannidis JP, Aasly JO, Annesi G, Brice A, Van Broeckhoven C, Bertram L, Bozi M, Crosiers D, Clarke C, Facheris M, Farrer M, Garraux G, Gispert S, Auburger G, Vilariño-Güell C, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Hicks AA, Hattori N, Jeon B, Lesage S, Lill CM, Lin JJ, Lynch T, Lichtner P, Lang AE, Mok V, Jasinska-Myga B, Mellick GD, Morrison KE, Opala G, Pramstaller PP, Pichler I, Park SS, Quattrone A, Rogaeva E, Ross OA, Stefanis L, Stockton JD, Satake W, Silburn PA, Theuns J, Tan EK, Toda T, Tomiyama H, Uitti RJ, Wirdefeldt K, Wszolek Z, Xiromerisiou G, Yueh KC, Zhao Y, Gasser T, Maraganore D, Krüger R, GEO-PD Consortium,
Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown.
Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry.
In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78-0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14-1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I(2) estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD.
Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity.
PMID: 22786590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Parkinsonism & related disorders 2012 Aug
Authors: Chung SJ, Armasu SM, Biernacka JM, Anderson KJ, Lesnick TG, Rider DN, Cunningham JM, Eric Ahlskog J, Frigerio R, Maraganore DM,
Little is known regarding genetic factors associated with motor or cognitive outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD).
To identify common genetic variants associated with motor and cognitive outcomes in PD.
The sample consisted of 443 PD cases included in the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD. Methods included telephone interview assessments of motor and cognitive outcomes, a median 9 years following the initial clinical assessments. Analyses included Cox proportional hazard models to study the association of 198,345 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with survival free of Hoehn and Yahr stage ≥ 4 (motor outcome), and either TICS-M ≤ 27 or AD-8 ≥ 2 (cognitive outcomes).
The SNP rs10958605 in the C8orf4 gene had the smallest p value in analyses of the motor outcome (HR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.42-2.31; p = 1.51 × 10(-6)). The SNP rs6482992 in the CLRN3 gene had the smallest p value in analyses of the cognitive outcome (HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.47-2.79, p = 4.08 × 10(-6)). However, no SNP associations were significant after Bonferroni correction. The C8orf4 gene had small p values for both motor and cognitive outcomes, highlighting inflammation as a possible pathogenesis mechanism for progression in PD.
This study suggests that common variants in several genes may be associated with motor and cognitive outcomes in PD, with biological plausibility.
PMID: 22658654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Annals of neurology 2012 Apr
Authors: Xiao J, Uitti RJ, Zhao Y, Vemula SR, Perlmutter JS, Wszolek ZK, Maraganore DM, Auburger G, Leube B, Lehnhoff K, LeDoux MS,
Primary dystonia is usually of adult onset, can be familial, and frequently involves the cervical musculature. Our goal was to identify the causal mutation in a family with adult onset, primary cervical dystonia.
Linkage and haplotype analyses were combined with solution-based whole-exome capture and massively parallel sequencing in a large Caucasian pedigree with adult onset, primary cervical dystonia to identify a cosegregating mutation. High-throughput screening and Sanger sequencing were completed in 308 Caucasians with familial or sporadic adult onset cervical dystonia and matching controls for sequence variants in this mutant gene.
Exome sequencing led to the identification of an exonic splicing enhancer mutation in exon 7 of CIZ1 (c.790A>G, p.S264G), which encodes CIZ1, Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1. CIZ1 is a p21(Cip1/Waf1) -interacting zinc finger protein expressed in brain and involved in DNA synthesis and cell-cycle control. Using a minigene assay, we showed that c.790A>G altered CIZ1 splicing patterns. The p.S264G mutation also altered the nuclear localization of CIZ1. Screening in subjects with adult-onset cervical dystonia identified 2 additional CIZ1 missense mutations (p.P47S and p.R672M).
Mutations in CIZ1 may cause adult onset, primary cervical dystonia, possibly by precipitating neurodevelopmental abnormalities that manifest in adults and/or G1/S cell-cycle dysregulation in the mature central nervous system.
PMID: 22447717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
PLoS genetics 2012
Authors: Lill CM, Roehr JT, McQueen MB, Kavvoura FK, Bagade S, Schjeide BM, Schjeide LM, Meissner E, Zauft U, Allen NC, Liu T, Schilling M, Anderson KJ, Beecham G, Berg D, Biernacka JM, Brice A, DeStefano AL, Do CB, Eriksson N, Factor SA, Farrer MJ, Foroud T, Gasser T, Hamza T, Hardy JA, Heutink P, Hill-Burns EM, Klein C, Latourelle JC, Maraganore DM, Martin ER, Martinez M, Myers RH, Nalls MA, Pankratz N, Payami H, Satake W, Scott WK, Sharma M, Singleton AB, Stefansson K, Toda T, Tung JY, Vance J, Wood NW, Zabetian CP, 23andMe Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium, International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium, Parkinson's Disease GWAS Consortium, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2), Young P, Tanzi RE, Khoury MJ, Zipp F, Lehrach H, Ioannidis JP, Bertram L,
More than 800 published genetic association studies have implicated dozens of potential risk loci in Parkinson's disease (PD). To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a dedicated online resource, PDGene, that comprehensively collects and meta-analyzes all published studies in the field. A systematic literature screen of -27,000 articles yielded 828 eligible articles from which relevant data were extracted. In addition, individual-level data from three publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were obtained and subjected to genotype imputation and analysis. Overall, we performed meta-analyses on more than seven million polymorphisms originating either from GWAS datasets and/or from smaller scale PD association studies. Meta-analyses on 147 SNPs were supplemented by unpublished GWAS data from up to 16,452 PD cases and 48,810 controls. Eleven loci showed genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) association with disease risk: BST1, CCDC62/HIP1R, DGKQ/GAK, GBA, LRRK2, MAPT, MCCC1/LAMP3, PARK16, SNCA, STK39, and SYT11/RAB25. In addition, we identified novel evidence for genome-wide significant association with a polymorphism in ITGA8 (rs7077361, OR 0.88, P = 1.3 × 10(-8)). All meta-analysis results are freely available on a dedicated online database (www.pdgene.org), which is cross-linked with a customized track on the UCSC Genome Browser. Our study provides an exhaustive and up-to-date summary of the status of PD genetics research that can be readily scaled to include the results of future large-scale genetics projects, including next-generation sequencing studies.
PMID: 22438815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
American journal of human genetics 2011 Sep 9
Authors: Chartier-Harlin MC, Dachsel JC, Vilariño-Güell C, Lincoln SJ, Leprêtre F, Hulihan MM, Kachergus J, Milnerwood AJ, Tapia L, Song MS, Le Rhun E, Mutez E, Larvor L, Duflot A, Vanbesien-Mailliot C, Kreisler A, Ross OA, Nishioka K, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Cobb SA, Melrose HL, Behrouz B, Keeling BH, Bacon JA, Hentati E, Williams L, Yanagiya A, Sonenberg N, Lockhart PJ, Zubair AC, Uitti RJ, Aasly JO, Krygowska-Wajs A, Opala G, Wszolek ZK, Frigerio R, Maraganore DM, Gosal D, Lynch T, Hutchinson M, Bentivoglio AR, Valente EM, Nichols WC, Pankratz N, Foroud T, Gibson RA, Hentati F, Dickson DW, Destée A, Farrer MJ,
Genome-wide analysis of a multi-incident family with autosomal-dominant parkinsonism has implicated a locus on chromosomal region 3q26-q28. Linkage and disease segregation is explained by a missense mutation c.3614G>A (p.Arg1205His) in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma (EIF4G1). Subsequent sequence and genotype analysis identified EIF4G1 c.1505C>T (p.Ala502Val), c.2056G>T (p.Gly686Cys), c.3490A>C (p.Ser1164Arg), c.3589C>T (p.Arg1197Trp) and c.3614G>A (p.Arg1205His) substitutions in affected subjects with familial parkinsonism and idiopathic Lewy body disease but not in control subjects. Despite different countries of origin, persons with EIF4G1 c.1505C>T (p.Ala502Val) or c.3614G>A (p.Arg1205His) mutations appear to share haplotypes consistent with ancestral founders. eIF4G1 p.Ala502Val and p.Arg1205His disrupt eIF4E or eIF3e binding, although the wild-type protein does not, and render mutant cells more vulnerable to reactive oxidative species. EIF4G1 mutations implicate mRNA translation initiation in familial parkinsonism and highlight a convergent pathway for monogenic, toxin and perhaps virally-induced Parkinson disease.
PMID: 21907011 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Lancet neurology 2011 Oct
Authors: Ross OA, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Heckman MG, Aasly JO, Abahuni N, Annesi G, Bacon JA, Bardien S, Bozi M, Brice A, Brighina L, Van Broeckhoven C, Carr J, Chartier-Harlin MC, Dardiotis E, Dickson DW, Diehl NN, Elbaz A, Ferrarese C, Ferraris A, Fiske B, Gibson JM, Gibson R, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Hattori N, Ioannidis JP, Jasinska-Myga B, Jeon BS, Kim YJ, Klein C, Kruger R, Kyratzi E, Lesage S, Lin CH, Lynch T, Maraganore DM, Mellick GD, Mutez E, Nilsson C, Opala G, Park SS, Puschmann A, Quattrone A, Sharma M, Silburn PA, Sohn YH, Stefanis L, Tadic V, Theuns J, Tomiyama H, Uitti RJ, Valente EM, van de Loo S, Vassilatis DK, Vilariño-Güell C, White LR, Wirdefeldt K, Wszolek ZK, Wu RM, Farrer MJ, Genetic Epidemiology Of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium,
Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals with and without PD, to investigate the role of the variants in PD susceptibility.
LRRK2 was genotyped in patients with PD and controls from three series (white, Asian, and Arab-Berber) from sites participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium. Genotyping was done for exonic variants of LRRK2 that were identified through searches of literature and the personal communications of consortium members. Associations with PD were assessed by use of logistic regression models. For variants that had a minor allele frequency of 0·5% or greater, single variant associations were assessed, whereas for rarer variants information was collapsed across variants.
121 exonic LRRK2 variants were assessed in 15 540 individuals: 6995 white patients with PD and 5595 controls, 1376 Asian patients and 962 controls, and 240 Arab-Berber patients and 372 controls. After exclusion of carriers of known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were identified for polymorphic variants in white individuals (M1646T, odds ratio 1·43, 95% CI 1·15-1·78; p=0·0012) and Asian individuals (A419V, 2·27, 1·35-3·83; p=0·0011). A protective haplotype (N551K-R1398H-K1423K) was noted at a frequency greater than 5% in the white and Asian series, with a similar finding in the Arab-Berber series (combined odds ratio 0·82, 0·72-0·94; p=0·0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants, G2385R was associated with disease (1·73, 1·20-2·49; p=0·0026), but no association was noted for R1628P (0·62, 0·36-1·07; p=0·087). In the Arab-Berber series, Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (4·48, 1·33-15·09; p=0·012).
The results for LRRK2 show that several rare and common genetic variants in the same gene can have independent effects on disease risk. LRRK2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the cause and pathogenesis of PD in a greater proportion of patients with this disease than previously believed. These results will help discriminate those patients who will benefit most from therapies targeted at LRRK2 pathogenic activity.
Michael J Fox Foundation and National Institutes of Health.
PMID: 21885347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]