Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) 2013 Sep
Authors: Lerret S, Mavis A, Biank V, Telega G,
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous virus responsible for acute infections of the respiratory tract in patients of all ages. RSV presents significant health risks to immunocompromised patients. Two patients, 1 before a liver transplant and 1 after a liver transplant, died of a severe RSV infection. Because of the high risk of death, we recommend expanding the criteria for palivizumab prophylaxis to 2 types of patients: (1) patients with chronic liver disease or who have received a liver transplant and are 24 months old or less and (2) transplant recipients with underlying pulmonary conditions who are less than 36 months old. Further research is indicated in pediatric solid-organ transplant centers to evaluate the effective management of RSV infection to prevent morbidity.
PMID: 23996945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Inflammatory bowel diseases 2012 Jul
Authors: Greenley RN, Kunz JH, Biank V, Martinez A, Miranda A, Noe J, Telega G, Tipnis NA, Werlin S, Stephens MC,
To examine the validity of patient self-report of thiopurine adherence in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) against an objective electronic monitoring adherence measure, and to investigate the role of youth and maternal involvement in remembering to take daily medications as predictors of medication adherence.
Fifty-one youths with IBD, ages 11-18 years, participated. Youths completed questionnaire assessments of their own and their maternal caregiver's involvement in remembering to take daily medications at baseline, completed monthly interviews assessing thiopurine adherence over the past week for a period of 6 months, and utilized a Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS) electronic monitor for their thiopurine medication for 6 months. Participants were grouped into adherent (at least 80% of doses taken based on objective MEMS caps) or nonadherent for analyses.
Youths who were nonadherent based on electronic monitoring overestimated their adherence by 23%, whereas adherent youths overestimated their adherence by only 2%, and as such patient self-report offered little utility in identifying youths who were nonadherent. Youths who reported high levels of involvement in remembering to take their medications were nearly eight times less likely to be nonadherent.
The current findings provide evidence that clinicians who work with children and adolescents with IBD may benefit from modifying their approach to nonadherence screening. Asking about youth involvement in remembering daily medications may be more informative than asking them to recall their medication-taking behavior over the last week in identifying those at highest risk for nonadherence.
PMID: 22689633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
Authors: Lerret SM, Garcia-Rodriguez L, Skelton J, Biank V, Kilway D, Telega G,
As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) also escalates. This study's purpose was to identify the clinical criteria to aid in determining when a liver biopsy is indicated for this growing population because currently no guidelines exist. We performed a retrospective chart review on all patients who were seen in the Nutrition Exercise and Weight Loss Kids™ Program at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from July 2003 through December 2004. We analyzed only individuals who underwent liver biopsy with the following criteria: (1) no evidence of other liver disease and (2) aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase greater than 200 IU/L or any elevation of or for more than 6 months. Of the 284 patients reviewed, only eight patients (3%) met the criteria for analysis. Biopsy results demonstrated that 100% had histological evidence of NASH with steatosis, and seven of the eight (87.5%) had NASH with fibrosis, cirrhosis, or both. Obese children with an aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase greater than 200 IU/L or any elevation of aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase for more than 6 months, have a strong likelihood of having NASH with or without fibrosis, cirrhosis, or both.
PMID: 22129796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Pediatric radiology 2012 Jan
Authors: Jensen MK, Biank VF, Moe DC, Simpson PM, Li SH, Telega GW,
Historically, HIDA is the initial diagnostic test in the evaluation of biliary atresia (BA). Non-excreting HIDA scans can yield false-positive results leading to negative laparotomy.
Cholestatic infants must be evaluated promptly to exclude biliary atresia (BA) and other treatable hepatic conditions. Intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) is the gold standard for diagnosing BA, but requires surgical intervention. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecysto-cholangiography (PTCC) and liver biopsy are less invasive and have been described in small case series. We hypothesized that PTCC and liver biopsy effectively exclude BA, thus avoiding unnecessary IOC.
Retrospective review of cholestatic infants who underwent PTCC, biopsy or cholescintigraphy at a tertiary children's hospital from August 1998 to January 2009. Group differences were evaluated and the receiver operator curve and safety of PTCC determined.
One-hundred twenty-eight cholestatic infants were reviewed. Forty-six (36%) underwent PTCC. Forty-one out of 46 (89%) had simultaneous PTCC and liver biopsy. PTCC was completed successfully in 19/23 (83%) children despite a small or absent GB on initial US. Negative laparotomy rate was 1/6 (17%) for simultaneous PTCC/liver biopsy. Complications occurred in 4/46 including bleeding (n=2), fever with elevated transaminases (n=1) and oxygen desaturations (n=1).
PTCC, particularly when performed in combination with simultaneous liver biopsy, effectively excludes BA in cholestatic infants with acceptable morbidity. PTCC can frequently be performed when a contracted gallbladder is seen on initial US exam. Negative laparotomy rate is lowest when PTCC is coupled with simultaneous liver biopsy.
PMID: 21786124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Journal of pediatrics 2011 Nov
Authors: Biank VF, Sheth MK, Talano J, Margolis D, Simpson P, Kugathasan S, Stephens M,
To assess the incidence of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in a well-defined population of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluate the common clinical and laboratory characteristics of individuals with IBD who developed HLH.
We conducted a retrospective study of all children who developed HLH over an 8-year period. The incidence of HLH in patients with IBD was calculated using US census data and a statewide project examining the epidemiology of pediatric IBD.
Among children in Wisconsin, 20 cases of HLH occurred during the study period; 5 cases occurred in children with IBD. Common characteristics include: Crohn's disease (CD), thiopurine administration, fever lasting more than 5 days, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, anemia, lymphopenia, and elevated serum triglycerides and ferritin. Of the patients, 4 had primary Epstein-Barr virus infections. The incidence of HLH among all children in Wisconsin was 1.5 per 100 000 per year. The risk was more than 100-fold greater for children with CD (P < .00001).
Pediatric patients with CD are at increased risk for developing HLH; primary Epstein-Barr virus infection and thiopurine administration may be risk factors.
PMID: 21722918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 2012 Feb
Authors: Sultan MI, Leon CD, Biank VF,
The liver plays a central role in energy and nutrient metabolism. Malnutrition is highly prevalent among patients with chronic liver disease and leads to increased morbidity and mortality rates. This review addresses the causes of malnutrition, methods used to assess nutrition status, and appropriate treatment strategies in pediatric patients with chronic liver disease.
PMID: 21681116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 2011 Apr
Authors: Levine A, Kugathasan S, Annese V, Biank V, Leshinsky-Silver E, Davidovich O, Kimmel G, Shamir R, Palmieri O, Orazio P, Karban A, Broeckel U, Cucchiara S,
Pediatric onset Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with more colitis and less ileitis compared with adult onset CD. Differences in disease site by age may suggest a different genotype, or different host responses such as decreased ileal susceptibility or increased susceptibility of the colon.
We evaluated 721 pediatric onset CD patients from 3 cohorts with a high allele frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations. Children with isolated upper intestinal disease were excluded. The remaining 678 patients were evaluated for interactions between age of onset, NOD2/CARD15, and disease location.
We found an age-related tendency for isolated colitis. Among pediatric onset patients without NOD2/CARD15 mutations, colitis without ileal involvement was significantly more common in first-decade onset patients (P = 4.57 x 10(-5), odds ratio [OR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-4.43). This was not true for colonic disease with ileal involvement (P = 0.35), or for isolated colitis in patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations (P = 0.61). Analysis of 229 patients with ileal or ileocolonic disease and a NOD2/CARD15 mutation disclosed that ileocolitis was more prevalent through age 10, while isolated ileitis was more prevalent above age 10 (P = 0.016). NOD2/CARD15 mutations were not associated with age of onset.
In early-onset pediatric CD, children with NOD2/CARD15 mutations demonstrate more ileocolitis and less isolated ileitis. Young children without NOD2/CARD15 mutations have an isolated colonic disease distribution, suggesting that this phenotype is associated with genes that lead to a specific phenotype of early-onset disease.
PMID: 21240019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]