European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 2013 Apr
Authors: Sadetzki S, Bruchim R, Oberman B, Armstrong GN, Lau CC, Claus EB, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Il'yasova D, Schildkraut J, Johansen C, Houlston RS, Shete S, Amos CI, Bernstein JL, Olson SH, Jenkins RB, Lachance D, Vick NA, Merrell R, Wrensch M, Davis FG, McCarthy BJ, Lai R, Melin BS, Bondy ML, Gliogene Consortium,
While certain inherited syndromes (e.g. Neurofibromatosis or Li-Fraumeni) are associated with an increased risk of glioma, most familial gliomas are non-syndromic. This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the largest series of non-syndromic glioma families ascertained from 14 centres in the United States (US), Europe and Israel as part of the Gliogene Consortium.
Families with 2 or more verified gliomas were recruited between January 2007 and February 2011. Distributions of demographic characteristics and clinical variables of gliomas in the families were described based on information derived from personal questionnaires.
The study population comprised 841 glioma patients identified in 376 families (9797 individuals). There were more cases of glioma among males, with a male to female ratio of 1.25. In most families (83%), 2 gliomas were reported, with 3 and 4 gliomas in 13% and 3% of the families, respectively. For families with 2 gliomas, 57% were among 1st-degree relatives, and 31.5% among 2nd-degree relatives. Overall, the mean (±standard deviation [SD]) diagnosis age was 49.4 (±18.7) years. In 48% of families with 2 gliomas, at least one was diagnosed at <40y, and in 12% both were diagnosed under 40y of age. Most of these families (76%) had at least one grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and in 32% both cases were grade IV gliomas. The most common glioma subtype was GBM (55%), followed by anaplastic astrocytoma (10%) and oligodendroglioma (8%). Individuals with grades I-II were on average 17y younger than those with grades III-IV.
Familial glioma cases are similar to sporadic cases in terms of gender distribution, age, morphology and grade. Most familial gliomas appear to comprise clusters of two cases suggesting low penetrance, and that the risk of developing additional gliomas is probably low. These results should be useful in the counselling and clinical management of individuals with a family history of glioma.
PMID: 23290425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Disease-a-month : DM 2012 Dec
Authors: Sun X, Vengoechea J, Elston R, Chen Y, Amos CI, Armstrong G, Bernstein JL, Claus E, Davis F, Houlston RS, Il'yasova D, Jenkins RB, Johansen C, Lai R, Lau CC, Liu Y, McCarthy BJ, Olson SH, Sadetzki S, Schildkraut J, Shete S, Yu R, Vick NA, Merrell R, Wrensch M, Yang P, Melin B, Bondy ML, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Gliogene Consortium,
We propose a 2-step model-based approach, with correction for ascertainment, to linkage analysis of a binary trait with variable age of onset and apply it to a set of multiplex pedigrees segregating for adult glioma.
First, we fit segregation models by formulating the likelihood for a person to have a bivariate phenotype, affection status and age of onset, along with other covariates, and from these we estimate population trait allele frequencies and penetrance parameters as a function of age (N = 281 multiplex glioma pedigrees). Second, the best fitting models are used as trait models in multipoint linkage analysis (N = 74 informative multiplex glioma pedigrees). To correct for ascertainment, a prevalence constraint is used in the likelihood of the segregation models for all 281 pedigrees. Then the trait allele frequencies are reestimated for the pedigree founders of the subset of 74 pedigrees chosen for linkage analysis.
Using the best-fitting segregation models in model-based multipoint linkage analysis, we identified 2 separate peaks on chromosome 17; the first agreed with a region identified by Shete and colleagues who used model-free affected-only linkage analysis, but with a narrowed peak: and the second agreed with a second region they found but had a larger maximum log of the odds (LOD).
Our approach was able to narrow the linkage peak previously published for glioma.
We provide a practical solution to model-based linkage analysis for disease affection status with variable age of onset for the kinds of pedigree data often collected for linkage analysis.
PMID: 23149521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Current treatment options in neurology 2012 Aug
Authors: Paleologos NA, Merrell RT,
The treatment of anaplastic glioma (AG) varies depending on histopathology of the tumor, molecular markers, and individual patient characteristics. Maximal surgical resection is desirable for all types of AG if technically feasible, with an acceptable level of risk, and with the goal of preserving neurologic function. As opposed to the standard treatment of glioblastoma, based on a large, randomized, phase 3 trial, there is no accepted standard treatment for AG. Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is most often treated with radiotherapy (RT), with or without concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) and with or without adjuvant temozolomide. Rarely is AA treated with chemotherapy alone, although different treatment modalities are being evaluated in ongoing trials. The treatment of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) is influenced by the 1p/19q status, as allelic co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q predicts increased sensitivity to chemotherapy and prolonged survival. In contrast to the treatment of AA, carefully selected patients with AO and AOA may be treated with chemotherapy alone. Temozolomide has largely replaced PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) as the chemotherapeutic agent for AO and AOA, largely due to greater tolerability and less potential for toxicity. However, whether temozolomide has similar efficacy to PCV has not been fully evaluated. Patients with AO and AOA with significant residual tumor after surgery, intractable seizures, and/or non co-deleted 1p/19q status are often treated with RT with or without concomitant chemotherapy and with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no standard postoperative care for anaplastic ependymoma (AE). The efficacy of upfront versus delayed RT has not been evaluated. Surgery may be indicated for patients with recurrent AG. There may be benefit on overall survival, although this has not been clearly proven. Reoperation may also provide symptomatic relief and confirm the pathology, including differentiation of radiation necrosis from recurrent tumor. Confirmation of tumor grade is often important for enrollment in clinical trials, a reasonable treatment choice for patients with recurrent tumor. Treatment of recurrent AG often depends on prior treatments. Patients who have progressed after RT alone may be treated with temozolomide or PCV. Patients treated previously with chemotherapy alone may be treated with RT at time of progression. Dose-intense temozolomide, bevacizumab alone, or bevacizumab in combination with a cytotoxic agent are other treatment options. Focused radiation such as stereotactic radiosurgery has no proven role in treating recurrent AG. A number of other treatment modalities are currently under active investigation, including targeted molecular inhibitors, immunotherapies, convection enhanced delivery, and viral gene therapies. There is no standard treatment for recurrent AE. Most patients undergo re-resection followed by RT if RT was not previously given. Chemotherapy may be given, but there is no standard chemotherapeutic regimen. Ongoing trials are evaluating the role of bevicizumab and targeted molecular agents in the treatment of AE.
PMID: 22665140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association 2012 May
Authors: Rabinstein AA, Mandrekar J, Merrell R, Kozak OS, Durosaro O, Fugate JE,
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) can be a consequence of hypertensive crisis and is often associated with rapid fluctuations in blood pressure (BP). However, the role of these BP changes in the pathogenesis of PRES has not been formally studied. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BP fluctuations and the occurrence of PRES.
We identified consecutive patients who developed PRES in the hospital and compared them with randomly selected controls matched for age, gender, and history of hypertension (HTN). Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were collected at 2-hour intervals over a 48-hour window before the onset of PRES symptoms. A profile of changes in the values of SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) over the 48-hour window was summarized for each individual by calculating a single number (M value) using the approach by Service et al. Comparisons of these summary numbers between the 2 groups (cases and controls) were made with the Wilcoxon signed rank test because of the smaller sample size and paired nature of the data. All tests were 2-sided, and P < .05 was considered statistically significant.
We analyzed the BP profiles in 25 cases of PRES and 25 controls. The median age of PRES patients was 54 years (range 31-72). Fourteen of them (56%) had a history of HTN. Hypertensive encephalopathy was considered the underlying cause of PRES in 13 patients (52%). At the time of the first symptoms of PRES, the mean SBP was 182 ± 20 mm Hg (range 218-145), DBP 95 ± 16 mm Hg (range 134-62), MAP 124 ± 15 (range 152-93), and PP 87 ± 18 (range 123-46). While BP was higher in PRES cases, the severity of HTN was variable and BP fluctuations were not significantly more common than in controls (P = .38 for SBP, .79 for DBP, .25 for MAP, and .73 for PP, respectively).
Although acute HTN is frequent in patients with PRES, BP fluctuations do not appear to be more common in hospitalized patients who develop PRES compared with controls matched for age and history of HTN. Other predisposing factors must therefore contribute to the development of PRES.
PMID: 21536456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of neurosurgery 2010 Dec
Authors: Merrell RT, Anderson SK, Meyer FB, Lachance DH,
Second-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are increasingly used in the care of patients with glioma. There is little data on how this practice compares with the use of traditional AEDs in this population. This noninferiority analysis compares seizure outcomes and side effects in patients with glioma treated with phenytoin and levetiracetam monotherapy.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 500 consecutive patients with glioma who were treated in clinical trials from 2001 to 2008 at 3 Mayo Clinic campuses. To be eligible for the study, these patients had to have had at least 1 clinical seizure and to have undergone follow-up for at least 6 months. Seizure outcomes, defined by the occurrence of a second seizure, time to second seizure, and seizure frequency, along with AED side effects, were compared between cohorts treated with phenytoin or levetiracetam
Seventy-six patients were identified, 25 treated with phenytoin and 51 with levetiracetam. Sixty-four percent of the patients had a Grade 4 astrocytoma. There was no difference in seizure outcome between the phenytoin and levetiracetam groups when comparing time to second seizure (p=0.584), second seizure rates (p=0.561), and average seizures per month (p=0.776). When adjusting for age, sex, type of seizure, type of glioma, and dosage using univariate and multivariate models, there were no differences between the treatment groups and none of these covariates were statistically significant for explaining the second seizure rates between treatment groups (all p values>0.05). The incidence of side effects in the levetiracetam group was 6% versus 20% in the phenytoin group (p=0.106). Additionally, 36% of the patients in the phenytoin group had dose adjustments unrelated to breakthrough seizures compared with only 10% in the levetiracetam group (p=0.010)
In this study, patients with glioma treated with levetiracetam and phenytoin had similar seizure control. Patients treated with levetiracetam experienced fewer side effects and required fewer nonseizure-related dose adjustments than patients treated with phenytoin. Levetiracetam is a safe, effective, and preferred alternative for seizure management in patients with glioma.
PMID: 20560728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic 2008 Nov
Authors: Merrell R, Nabors LB, Perry A, Palmer CA,
Extracranial metastasis of primary brain tumors is a rare phenomenon. Of the few cases reported of metastatic oligodendroglioma, only two have evaluated genetic alterations, specifically deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q. Herein, we report two additional patients with metastatic anaplastic oligodendroglioma to bone, both followed until death. All available pathology specimens were reviewed and genetic analysis was performed in one of the cases. Although the bone metastasis was non-informative, the primary intracranial tumor revealed codeletions of the 1p and 19q chromosomal arms, commonly recognized as the genetically favorable profile of oligodendrogliomas. Both patients died of complications related to their systemic disease and did not have any radiologic evidence of intracranial progression at the time of their last MRI studies. Along with the reported literature, our data suggest that despite their generally favorable behavioral profiles, oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q deletions may be more prone to metastasis as they progress. Genetic analysis serves a valuable ancillary role in the diagnostic workup of such cases.
PMID: 18990326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]