Disease-a-month : DM 2010 May
Authors: Gong HJ, Randall DP, Flowers TJ,
Sodium chloride reduces the growth of rice seedlings, which accumulate excessive concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in their leaves. In this paper, we describe how silicon decreases transpirational bypass flow and ion concentrations in the xylem sap in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings growing under NaCl stress. Salt (50 mM NaCl) reduced the growth of shoots and roots: adding silicate (3 mM) to the saline culture solution improved the growth of the shoots, but not roots. The improvement of shoot growth in the presence of silicate was correlated with reduced sodium concentration in the shoot. The net transport rate of Na from the root to shoot (expressed per unit of root mass) was also decreased by added silicate. There was, however, no effect of silicate on the net transport of potassium. Furthermore, in salt-stressed plants, silicate did not decrease the transpiration, and even increased it in seedlings pre-treated with silicate for 7 d prior to salt treatment, indicating that the reduction of sodium uptake by silicate was not simply through a reduction in volume flow from root to shoot. Experiments using trisodium-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid (PTS), an apoplastic tracer, showed that silicate dramatically decreased transpirational bypass flow in rice (from about 4.2 to 0.8%), while the apparent sodium concentration in the xylem, which was estimated indirectly from the flux data, decreased from 6.2 to 2.8 mM. Direct measurements of the concentration of sodium in xylem sap sampled using Philaenus spumarius confirmed that the apparent reduction was not a consequence of sodium recycling. X-ray microanalysis showed that silicon was deposited in the outer part of the root and in the endodermis, being more obvious in the latter than in the former. The results suggest that silicon deposition in the exodermis and endodermis reduced sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under NaCl stress through a reduction in apoplastic transport across the root.
PMID: 20493307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Journal of colloid and interface science 2003 Jan 1
Authors: Chen X, Randall DP, Perruchot C, Watts JF, Patten TE, von Werne T, Armes SP,
A range of polyelectrolyte-grafted silica particles have been prepared by grafting suitable initiators onto near-monodisperse, 304-nm-diameter silica particles using siloxane chemistry, followed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of four ionic vinyl monomers, namely sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SStNa), sodium 4-vinylbenzoate (NaVBA), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DAM), and 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA) in protic media. The resulting polyelectrolyte-grafted silica particles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), helium pycnometry, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transfer spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The TGA results indicated that the polyelectrolyte contents of the silica particles could be varied from 0.6% to 6.0% in weight. SEM studies revealed several surface morphologies for the grafted polyelectrolytes and XPS analysis of the particle surface also provided good evidence for surface grafting. Combined aqueous electrophoresis and DLS studies confirmed that these polyelectrolyte-grafted silica particles had pH-dependent colloid stabilities, as expected. Cationic polyelectrolyte-grafted silica particles were colloidally stable at low or neutral pH, but became aggregated at high pH. Conversely, anionic polyelectrolyte-coated silica particles became unstable at low pH. It was found that the rate of surface-initiated ATRP was substantially slower than the analogous solution polymerization. Finally, there was some evidence to suggest that, at least in some cases, a significant fraction of polymer chains became detached from the silica particles during polymerization.
PMID: 16256456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 2004 Mar 16
Authors: Percy MJ, Amalvy JI, Randall DP, Armes SP, Greaves SJ, Watts JF,
The surfactant-free synthesis of vinyl polymer-silica nanocomposite particles has been achieved in aqueous alcoholic media at ambient temperature in the absence of auxiliary comonomers. Styrene, methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate were homopolymerized in turn in the presence of three commercially available ultrafine alcoholic silica sols. Stable colloidal dispersions with reasonably narrow size distributions were obtained, with silica contents of up to 58% by mass indicated by thermogravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions were assessed using both dynamic light scattering and disk centrifuge photosedimentometry. The former technique indicated that the particle size increased for the first 1-2 h at 25 degrees C and thereafter remained constant. Particle morphologies were studied using electron microscopy. Most of the colloidal nanocomposites comprised approximately spherical particles with relatively narrow size distributions, but in some cases more polydisperse or nonspherical particles were obtained. Selected acrylate-based nanocomposites were examined in terms of their film formation behavior. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated relatively smooth films were obtained on drying at 20 degrees C, with complete loss of the original particle morphology. The optical clarity of solution-cast 10 microm nanocomposite films was assessed using visible absorption spectrophotometry, with 93-98% transmission being obtained from 400 to 800 nm; the effect of long-term immersion of such films in aqueous solutions was also examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicated that the surface compositions of these nanocomposite particles are invariably silica-rich, which is consistent with their long-term colloidal stability and also with aqueous electrophoresis measurements. FT-IR studies suggested that in the case of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-silica nanocomposite particles, the carbonyl ester groups in the polymer are hydrogen-bonded to the surface silanol groups. According to differential scanning calorimetry studies, the glass transition temperatures of several poly(methyl methacrylate)-silica and polystyrene-silica nanocomposites can be either higher or lower than those of the corresponding homopolymers, depending on the nature of the silica sol.
PMID: 15835669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 2004 Dec 21
Authors: Fujii S, Randall DP, Armes SP,
Surfactant-stabilized polystyrene (PS) latex particles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 155 nm were prepared by aqueous emulsion polymerization using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride as a cationic radical initiator. Seeded aqueous emulsion copolymerizations of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were conducted in the presence of these PS particles to produce two batches of colloidally stable core-shell latex particles, in which the shell comprised a cross-linked P(DMA-stat-EGDMA) overlayer. Both the PS and PS/P(DMA-stat-EGDMA) latexes were characterized in terms of their particle size, morphology, and composition using dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. Using the PS/P(DMA-stat-EGDMA) latex particles as a pH-responsive particulate ('Pickering'-type) emulsifier, polydisperse n-dodecane-in-water emulsions were prepared at pH 8 that could be partially broken (demulsified) on lowering the solution pH to 3. These emulsions were characterized in terms of their emulsion type, mean droplet diameter, and morphology using electrical conductivity and Mastersizer measurements, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (using critical point drying for sample preparation).
PMID: 15595754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Chemical communications (Cambridge, England) 2004 Nov 7
Authors: Whitby RL, Brigatti KS, Kinloch IA, Randall DP, Maekawa T,
We describe the formation of novel, leaf-like Mg2SiO4 structures, via iodine vapour transport of magnesium onto quartz substrates.
PMID: 15514783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 2004 Aug 31
Authors: Read ES, Fujii S, Amalvy JI, Randall DP, Armes SP,
Sterically stabilized polystyrene latexes (previously described by Amalvy, J. I.; et al. Chem. Commun. 2003, 1826) were evaluated as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers for the preparation of both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. The steric stabilizer was a well-defined AB diblock copolymer where A is poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) and B is poly(methyl methacrylate). Several parameters were varied during the emulsion preparation, including the polarity of the oil phase, the latex concentration, surface concentration of copolymer stabilizer, and solution pH. Nonpolar oils such as n-dodecane gave oil-in-water emulsions, and polar oils such as 1-undecanol produced water-in-oil emulsions. In both cases, these emulsions proved to be stimulus-responsive: demulsification occurred rapidly on adjusting the solution pH. Oils of intermediate polarity such as methyl myristate or cineole led to emulsions that underwent transitional inversion on adjusting the solution pH. All emulsions were polydisperse and typically ranged from 40 to 400 microm diameter, as judged by optical microscopy and Malvern Mastersizer measurements. Critical point drying of the emulsion droplets, followed by scanning electron microscopy studies, confirmed that the latex particles were adsorbed as a single monolayer at the oil/water interface, as anticipated.
PMID: 15323485 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]