N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 14;364(15):1395-406
Authors: Feldman T, Foster E, Glower DD, Glower DG, Kar S, Rinaldi MJ, Fail PS, Smalling RW, Siegel R, Rose GA, Engeron E, Loghin C, Trento A, Skipper ER, Fudge T, Letsou GV, Massaro JM, Mauri L, EVEREST II Investigators
BACKGROUND: Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days.
RESULTS: At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline.
CONCLUSIONS: Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274.).
PMID: 21463154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Psychosom Res. 2009 Jul;67(1):45-56
Authors: Saab PG, Bang H, Williams RB, Powell LH, Schneiderman N, Thoresen C, Burg M, Keefe F, ENRICHD Investigators
OBJECTIVE: Although the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) treatment was designed to include individual therapy and cognitive behavioral group training for patients with depression and/or low perceived social support, only 31% of treated participants received group training. Secondary analyses classified intervention participants into two subgroups, (1) individual therapy only or (2) group training (i.e., coping skills training) plus individual therapy, to determine whether medical outcomes differed in participants who received the combination of group training and individual therapy compared to participants who received individual therapy only or usual care.
METHODS: Secondary analyses of 1243 usual care, 781 individual therapy only, and 356 group plus individual therapy myocardial infarction (MI) patients were performed. Depression was diagnosed using modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria; low perceived social support was determined by the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument. Psychosocial treatment followed MI, and for participants with severe or unremitting depression, was supplemented with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate intervention effects on time to first occurrence of the composite end point of death plus nonfatal MI. To control for confounding of group participation with survival (because individual sessions preceded group), we used risk set sampling to match minimal survival time of those receiving or not receiving group training.
RESULTS: Analyses correcting for differential survival among comparison groups showed that group plus individual therapy was associated with a 33% reduction (hazard ratio=0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.92, P=.01) in medical outcome compared to usual care. No significant effect on event-free survival was associated with individual therapy alone. The group training benefit was reduced to 23% (hazard ratio=0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.07, P=.11) in the multivariate-adjusted model.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that adding group training to individual therapy may be associated with reduction in the composite end point. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to definitively resolve this issue.
PMID: 19539818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Am J Cardiol. 2007 Nov 15;100(10):1577-83
Authors: Foster E, Wasserman HS, Gray W, Homma S, Di Tullio MR, Rodriguez L, Stewart WJ, Whitlow P, Block P, Martin R, Merlino J, Herrmann HC, Wiegers SE, Silvestry FE, Hamilton A, Zunamon A, Kraybill K, Gerber IL, Weeks SG, Zhang Y, Feldman T
The aims of the echocardiographic substudy of this multicenter trial were to evaluate the use of quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity using serial echocardiography and to assess the efficacy of percutaneous mitral valve repair. Previous surgical repair studies did not use quantitative echocardiographic methods. Results of a percutaneous mitral valve repair clip device in a core echocardiographic laboratory were evaluated. Published parameters for quantifying MR were used in a systematic protocol to qualify patients for study entry and evaluate treatment efficacy at discharge and 6 months after clip repair. Baseline results were presented for 55 patients, and follow-up results, for 49. Ninety-eight percent of required echocardiographic studies were submitted to the core laboratory, and >85% of required measurements were possible. At baseline, mean regurgitant volume was 54.8 +/- 24 ml, regurgitant fraction was 46.9 +/-16.2%, effective regurgitant orifice area was 0.71 +/- 0.40 cm(2), and vena contracta width was 0.66 +/- 0.20 cm. Based on a severity scale of 1 to 4, mean color flow grade was 3.4 +/- 0.7, and mean pulmonary vein flow was 2.8 +/- 1.2. In patients with a clip at 6 months, all measurements of MR severity were significantly decreased versus baseline, with mean regurgitant volume decreased from 50.3 to 27.5 ml (change -22.8 ml; p <0.0001), regurgitant fraction from 44.6% to 28.9% (change -15.7%; p <0.0001), color flow grade from an average of 3.4 to 1.8 (change -1.6; p <0.0001), and pulmonary vein flow from 2.8 to 1.8 (change -1.0; p <0.0018). In conclusion, quantitative assessment of MR is feasible in a multicenter trial, and percutaneous mitral repair with the MitraClip produces a sustained decrease in MR severity to moderate or less for > or =6 months.
PMID: 17996523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wiad Lek. 2007;60(5-6):291-3
Authors: Kuźniar TJ, Hinchcliff M, Zunamon A, Balagani R, Enzler M, Mandzij R
A 22-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acrocyanosis of fingers and toes and dyspnea on exertion. Initial echocardiography showed multiple right and left atrial myxomata, mild enlargement of the left ventricle and severely depressed left ventricular systolic function. Resection of the tumors and replacement of the myxomatous mitral valve led to a complete resolution of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction, and was accompanied by disappearance of skin findings and symptoms of asthma.
PMID: 17966897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007 Oct;20(10):1131-40
Authors: Silvestry FE, Rodriguez LL, Herrmann HC, Rohatgi S, Weiss SJ, Stewart WJ, Homma S, Goyal N, Pulerwitz T, Zunamon A, Hamilton A, Merlino J, Martin R, Krabill K, Block PC, Whitlow P, Tuzcu EM, Kapadia S, Gray WA, Reisman M, Wasserman H, Schwartz A, Foster E, Feldman T, Wiegers SE
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous mitral repair is rapidly developing as an alternative to cardiac surgery in select patients. The Evalve percutaneous E2E system uses the MitraClip to replicate the surgical suture-based approach. This procedure requires real-time echocardiographic guidance in a unique and significant collaboration between echocardiographer and interventionalist. transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is used as the primary imaging modality to guide this procedure and is essential to its success.
METHODS: In EVEREST I, the US multicenter phase I safety and feasibility trial, 47 patients with 3 or 4+ mitral regurgitation (MR) were enrolled. The trial involved a standardized echocardiographic imaging protocol with a standardized anatomic-based vocabulary, predetermined standard TEE views, preprocedural strategy meetings, and display of echocardiographic aids to optimize communication and procedural efficiency during placement of the clip.
RESULTS: TEE guidance facilitated the creation of a double-orifice mitral valve in all 47 patients enrolled (100%), and 40 patients were discharged with 1 or more clips (85%). At discharge, successful placement of a clip and <or= 2+ MR was present in 34 patients (74%). The standardized approach contributed to a reduction in the time to perform the procedure over the course of the trial at both initial and new sites.
CONCLUSIONS: TEE is essential to the guidance of percutaneous MitraClip E2E repair. A streamlined approach to echocardiographic guidance, using predetermined standardized views, a common anatomic-based vocabulary, preprocedural strategy meetings, and a display of echocardiographic aids in the catheterization laboratory shortens the procedure time and allows for efficient percutaneous repair.
PMID: 17570634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006 Dec;68(6):821-8
Authors: Herrmann HC, Rohatgi S, Wasserman HS, Block P, Gray W, Hamilton A, Zunamon A, Homma S, Di Tullio MR, Kraybill K, Merlino J, Martin R, Rodriguez L, Stewart WJ, Whitlow P, Wiegers SE, Silvestry FE, Foster E, Feldman T
INTRODUCTION: The Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair STudies (EVEREST) are investigating a percutaneous technique for edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with a repositionable clip. The effects on the mitral valve gradient (MVG) and mitral valve area (MVA) are not known.
METHODS: Twenty seven patients with moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed preprocedure, at discharge, and at 1, 6, and 12 months. Mean MVG was measured by Doppler and MVA by planimetry and pressure half-time, and evaluated in a central core laboratory. Pre- and postclip deployment, simultaneous left atrial/pulmonary capillary wedge and left ventricular pressures were obtained in eight patients.
RESULTS: Three patients did not receive a clip, six patients had their clip(s) explanted by 6 months (none for mitral stenosis), and four were repaired with two clips. Results are notable for a slight increase in mean MVG by Doppler postclip deployment (1.79 +/- 0.89 to 3.31 +/- 2.09 mm Hg, P < 0.01) and an expected decrease in MVA by planimetry (6.49 +/- 1.61 to 4.46 +/- 2.14 cm(2), P < 0.001) and by pressure half time (4.35 +/- 0.98 to 3.01 +/- 1.42 cm(2), P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in hemodynamic parameters postclip deployment by direct pressure measurements. There was no change in MVA by planimetry from discharge to 12 months (3.90 +/- 1.90 to 3.79 +/- 1.54 cm(2), P = 0.78).
CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip show an expected decrease in mitral valve area with no evidence of clinically significant mitral stenosis either immediately after clip deployment or after 12 months of follow-up.
PMID: 17080467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N Engl J Med. 2004 Jul 29;351(5):460-9
Authors: Veugelers M, Bressan M, McDermott DA, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Mabry CC, Lefaivre JF, Zunamon A, Destree A, Chaudron JM, Basson CT
BACKGROUND: Familial cardiac myxomas occur in the hereditary syndrome Carney complex. Although PRKAR1A mutations can cause the Carney complex, the disorder is genetically heterogeneous. To identify the cause of a Carney complex variant associated with distal arthrogryposis (the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome), we performed clinical and genetic studies.
METHODS: A large family with familial cardiac myxomas and the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome (Family 1) was identified and clinically evaluated along with two families with trismus and pseudocamptodactyly. Genetic linkage analyses were performed with the use of microsatellite polymorphisms to determine a locus for this Carney complex variant. Positional cloning and mutational analyses of candidate genes were performed to identify the genetic cause of disease in the family with the Carney complex as well as in the families with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome.
RESULTS: Clinical evaluations demonstrated that the Carney complex cosegregated with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome in Family 1, and genetic analyses demonstrated linkage of the disease to chromosome 17p12-p13.1 (maximum multipoint lod score, 4.39). Sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation (Arg674Gln) in the perinatal myosin heavy-chain gene (MYH8). The same mutation was also found in the two families with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome. Arg674 is highly conserved evolutionarily, localizes to the actin-binding domain of the perinatal myosin head, and is close to the ATP-binding site. We identified nonsynonymous MYH8 polymorphisms in patients with cardiac myxoma syndromes but without arthrogryposis.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a novel heart-hand syndrome involving familial cardiac myxomas and distal arthrogryposis and demonstrate that these disorders are caused by a founder mutation in the MYH8 gene. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for perinatal myosin in both the development of skeletal muscle and cardiac tumorigenesis.
PMID: 15282353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Adv Enzyme Regul. 1980;18:239-58
Authors: Williams-Ashman HG, Beil RE, Wilson J, Hawkins M, Grayhack J, Zunamon A, Weinstein NK
PMID: 6108700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]